Cerita itu

Michelangelo

Michelangelo


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Michelangelo (1475-1564 CE) adalah seorang seniman, arkitek dan penyair Itali, yang dianggap sebagai salah satu tokoh Renaissance yang paling hebat dan paling berpengaruh. Karya-karyanya yang paling terkenal, dari portfolio karya yang menakjubkan, merangkumi siling Kapel Sistine di Rom dan patung marmar raksasa David, yang berada di Galleria dell'Accademia of Florence.

Dianggap oleh sezamannya sebagai seniman hidup yang paling hebat, Michelangelo sangat berpengaruh pada gaya seni High Renaissance, Mannerism, dan Baroque. Masih hari ini, karya-karya lelaki hebat itu terus menerus mencetuskan perasaan para pencinta seni di seluruh dunia yang dia ingin hasilkan dalam semua seninya tidak kira mediumnya: kekaguman bentuk dan gerakan, kejutan dan kagum.

Kehidupan Awal

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti dilahirkan pada tahun 1475 CE di Caprese, sebuah bandar kecil berhampiran Florence, Itali. Tidak seperti banyak artis terkenal lain, Michelangelo dilahirkan dalam keluarga yang makmur. Ketika berusia 13 tahun, dia dikirim untuk belajar di Florence di bawah pelukis lukisan dinding terkenal Domenico Ghirlandaio (sekitar 1449-1494 CE). Artis muda menghabiskan dua tahun sebagai magang Ghirlandaio tetapi juga mengunjungi banyak gereja di kota ini, mempelajari karya seni mereka dan membuat sketsa. Keruntuhan besar Michelangelo datang ketika karyanya diperhatikan oleh Lorenzo de Medici (1449-1492 CE), ketua keluarga Florentine yang hebat dengan nama itu dan pelindung seni yang murah hati. Di taman patung Lorenzo yang mengagumkan, seniman muda itu dapat mempelajari secara langsung karya-karya pemahat hebat zaman dahulu, terutama sarkofagi Rom yang dihiasi dengan kelegaan tinggi, dan belajar dari kurator artistik taman dan pemahat terkenal Bertoldo di Giovanni (sekitar 1420 -1491 CE). Michelangelo kemudiannya akan membuat makam marmar Lorenzo de Medici di gereja keluarga Medici San Lorenzo di Florence.

Michelangelo berusaha untuk menciptakan dunia yang lebih indah daripada yang sebenarnya wujud dalam kenyataan.

Pengaruh karya Klasik ini terhadap Michelangelo jelas terlihat pada tokoh-tokoh penakut dalam salah satu karya agungnya yang pertama, arca lega yang dikenali sebagai Pertempuran Centaur dan Lapith yang kini dipamerkan di Casa Buonarroti di Florence. Keasyikan artis dengan zaman kuno pada separuh pertama kariernya terbukti dengan jelas dalam karyanya tetapi juga dalam percubaannya yang sengaja dilakukan untuk melepaskan patung-patung yang sebenarnya kuno. Pada tahun 1496 CE, misalnya, dia memahat Cupid Tidur (sekarang hilang) yang sengaja dia buat untuk membuatnya menjadi karya kuno yang asli dan yang berjaya dia jual kepada Kardinal Raffaele Riario.

Michelangelo, pada waktu itu, sudah fokus pada teknik yang dikenal sebagai disegno di mana seorang seniman berkonsentrasi terutama dalam usaha untuk menangkap bentuk, otot, dan pose tubuh manusia melalui lakaran di atas kertas karya Klasik yang kemudian diubah menjadi patung atau lukisan yang sama sekali baru. Michelangelo juga menambahkan semangat warisan seni ini untuk menjadikan tokoh-tokohnya dengan pose dramatik dan melakukannya dalam skala monumental, yang mungkin menjelaskan pilihannya sendiri untuk patung daripada media lain. Kombinasi pelaksanaan realistis, keagungan, dan dinamisme akan menjadi ciri utama karya master di semua media ketika dia berusaha untuk mewujudkan dunia yang lebih indah daripada yang sebenarnya ada dalam kenyataan.

Sejarah Cinta?

Daftar untuk mendapatkan buletin e-mel percuma setiap minggu!

Karya-karya hebat Michelangelo bercakap untuk diri mereka sendiri & mereka yang tidak dapat melihatnya secara langsung dapat mengagumi atau mempelajarinya dalam banyak ukiran yang dibuat.

Artis Renaissance Terkemuka

Pada tahun 1496 CE Michelangelo pindah ke Rom yang memberikannya banyak peluang untuk mempelajari contoh seni dan seni bina Klasik. Pada masa inilah dia membuat karya lain, the Pietà (lihat di bawah). Pulang ke Florence c. 1500 CE, seniman itu sudah mapan dan dia ditugaskan untuk membuat tokoh yang tidak kurang dari tempatnya seperti Katedral Florence. Michelangelo diberi sekumpulan besar marmer Carrara yang sangat berharga yang tidak ada yang tahu apa yang harus dilakukan. Hasilnya adalah karya lain, mungkin patung artis yang paling terkenal: Daud (lihat di bawah). Selanjutnya adalah seorang koki-d'oeuvre yang menggunakan cat, menunjukkan Michelangelo sama sekali tidak terbatas pada patung. Keluarga Suci dicat pada tahun 1503 CE dan karya tersebut kini berada di Galeri Uffizi di Florence. Seterusnya diadakan pertemuan menarik dari para pemikir besar ketika Michelangelo dan Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519 CE) keduanya mengerjakan lukisan dinding di Dewan Majlis Florence. Subjek karya Michelangelo adalah Pertempuran Cascina tetapi, seperti usaha Leonardo di sini, ia dibiarkan belum selesai. Hanya dapat disangka apa yang mungkin telah dipelajari oleh setiap artis hebat dari yang lain pada masa ini.

Michelangelo kembali ke Rom untuk mengerjakan makam Paus Julius II (sekitar 1503-1513 M), dan kemudian dia diberi komisen yang paling mencabar - untuk melukis langit-langit Kapel Sistin Kota Vatikan (lihat di bawah). Walaupun bekerja secara bersendirian dan sangat kerap berada di posisi yang tidak selesa di atas perancah, silingnya selesai dengan sangat cepat. Selesai menjelang tahun 1512 M, karya tersebut mungkin tidak menyenangkan semua orang di Gereja, tetapi penglihatan utamanya tentang Tuhan di antara awan yang menjangkau untuk menyentuh jari Adam telah menjadi salah satu gambar yang paling banyak dihasilkan sepanjang masa.

Michelangelo akan terus memahat dan, lebih jarang, melukis seumur hidupnya. Dia terus menulis soneta yang sangat dikagumi yang sering didedikasikan untuk penyair Vittoria Colonna (1490-1547 CE), walaupun banyak yang ditulis di belakang sketsa dan wang kertas. Dalam contoh ini, Sonnet 151 (sekitar 1538-1544 CE), seniman membandingkan kegagalan seni mencegah kematian dengan pencarian cinta sejati:

Malah artis terbaik tidak mempunyai konsep

bahawa satu blok marmar tidak mengandungi

yang berlebihan, dan itu hanya dapat dicapai

Kesakitan yang saya lalui dan kegembiraan yang saya harapkan

tersembunyi di dalam kamu, wanita cantik,

mulia dan ilahi; tetapi, untuk keburukan saya,

seni saya memberikan hasil yang sebaliknya daripada apa yang saya mahukan.

Oleh itu, cinta tidak boleh disalahkan kerana kesakitan saya,

kecantikan anda, kekerasan, atau cacian anda,

dan juga nasib, takdir saya, atau peluang,

jika anda menahan kematian dan rahmat di dalam hati anda

pada masa yang sama, dan akal saya yang rendah, walaupun terbakar,

tidak dapat menarik daripadanya kecuali kematian.

(Paoletti, 404)

Terdapat juga banyak projek seni bina penting, seperti Perpustakaan Laurentian, San Lorenzo, Florence (1525 CE) dengan ruang bacaan sepanjang 46 meter (150 kaki), gabungan kejayaan estetika dan fungsi. Projek lain termasuk Bukit Capitoline yang baru di Rom (bermula pada tahun 1544 CE), kubah Basilika Santo Petrus yang melambung tinggi di Rom (dari tahun 1547 CE tetapi tidak siap hingga tahun 1590 M) yang mana Michelangelo enggan menerima gaji, dan Kapel sepulchral Medici di Florence. Sepatutnya, sepanjang abad ke-16 M, kapel Medici menjadi tempat yang sering dikunjungi oleh seniman bercita-cita yang datang untuk mengagumi dan belajar dari gabungan seni dan seni ukir seni yang unik dan berwawasan ini. Michelangelo meninggal pada 18 Februari 1564 CE di Rom dan dikebumikan dengan banyak upacara di Basilika Santa Croce di Florence.

Reputasi & Warisan

Artis hebat itu sendiri ditangkap dalam beberapa karya seni yang masih ada. Salah satu contoh yang mencolok adalah patung gangsa oleh rakan senegaranya, Daniele da Volterra (1509-1566 CE), yang, c. 1564 CE, kini menetap di Bargello of Florence. Patung itu realistik dan memperlihatkan Michelangelo berjanggut dengan banyak keriput dan hidungnya sedikit rata yang dia bawa sejak artis Pietro Torrigiano (1472-1528 CE) memecahkannya ketika pasangan itu masih muda (Torrigiano diasingkan dari Florence sebagai akibatnya ).

Rekod Michelangelo yang lebih terperinci terselamat dalam dua biografi yang ditulis semasa hidup artis oleh Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574 CE) dan Ascanio Condivi (1525-1574 CE). Artis Tuscan Vasari menyelesaikannya Kehidupan Arkitek, Pelukis, dan Pemahat Itali yang Paling Hebat pada tahun 1550 CE tetapi kemudian secara menyeluruh menyemak dan memperluas karya pada tahun 1568 CE. Sejarah itu merupakan catatan monumental para seniman Renaissance, karya mereka dan kisah-kisah anekdot yang berkaitan dengannya, dan oleh itu Vasari dianggap sebagai salah satu pelopor sejarah seni. Sementara itu, rakan artis Itali Condivi, adalah murid Michelangelo di Rom, dan dia menulisnya Kehidupan Michelangelo pada tahun 1553 CE, sebuah karya yang diawasi oleh tuan besar itu sendiri (yang mungkin menjelaskan sejumlah unsur fiksyen atau keterlaluan).

Kedua biografi ini membantu membangun reputasi Michelangelo sebagai legenda hidup kerana sesama seniman mengenali kejeniusan dan sumbangannya terhadap kebangkitan seni semasa Zaman Renaissance. Secara semula jadi, karya-karya besar Michelangelo berbicara sendiri, dan mereka yang tidak dapat melihatnya secara langsung dapat mengagumi atau mempelajarinya dalam banyak ukiran yang diedarkan di seluruh Eropah. Ketenarannya juga melangkaui Eropah. Sultan Empayar Uthmaniyyah Bayezid II (r. 1481-1512 M) mendengar keterampilan artis dan mengundangnya, tanpa kejayaan, ke istana. Karya-karya Michelangelo bahkan dikumpulkan, terutama di Perancis. Ringkasnya, Michelangelo dianggap tidak kurang dari ilahi - istilah yang sering digunakan untuk artis selama hidupnya - dan pemilik kekuatan seni yang hebat, yang disebut oleh sezamannya terribilità. Cahaya yang dilukis oleh lelaki hebat pada seni dan seni bina Barat terus bersinar lama setelah kematiannya dan karyanya sangat berpengaruh pada pengembangan Mannerisme dan gaya Barok berikutnya.

Karya agung

Pietà

The Pietà adalah gambar marmer dari Perawan Maria yang berkabung di atas tubuh Yesus Kristus yang terletak di pangkuannya. Selesai antara 1497 dan 1500 CE, karya itu ditugaskan oleh kardinal Perancis untuk makamnya di sebuah kapel di Roma. Berdiri 1,74 meter (5 kaki 8 inci), kini tinggal di Basilika St. Petrus. Karya ini menggabungkan semua aspek seni pemahat: penggambaran hiper-realistik tubuh manusia, lipatan tirai yang rumit, wajah Maria yang tenang dan kontemplatif, mayat Yesus yang lesu, dan komposisi yang mengingatkan patung-patung pemujaan utara tetapi menawarkan sesuatu yang belum pernah dilihat dalam seni Itali. Bahawa Michelangelo sangat berpuas hati dengan hasilnya yang dibuktikan dalam anekdot bahawa dia kemudian menambahkan tanda tangannya setelah artis pesaing mengaku sebagai penciptanya.

Daud

Seperti disebutkan di atas, persembahan Michelangelo ke Katedral Florence adalah patung marmer raja Alkitab David yang, pada masa mudanya, terkenal membunuh Goliath raksasa yang menyusahkan. Angka itu jauh lebih besar daripada ukuran hidup - tinggi sekitar 5,20 meter (17 kaki) - dan begitu besar sehingga tidak dapat diletakkan di atas bumbung katedral seperti yang diharapkan tetapi berdiri sebaliknya di alun-alun menghadap. Michelangelo menerima sekitar 400 florin untuk pekerjaan yang dia mulakan pada tahun 1501 CE dan selesai pada tahun 1504 CE. David kini berdiri di Galeri Accademia Florence sementara replika ukuran penuh berdiri di udara terbuka Palazzo della Signoria.

Angka itu sekarang putih tetapi pada asalnya mempunyai tiga elemen berlapis emas: penyangga tunggul pohon, tali pinggang daun dan karangan bunga di kepalanya. Satu-satunya pengenalan bahawa ini adalah sosok David adalah sling di bahu kiri figur. Lebih jauh lagi, kematangan badan untuk apa yang seharusnya menjadi pemuda, bersama dengan ketelanjangan sosok, sangat mengingatkan patung-patung kolosal pada zaman kuno, terutama Hercules. Tidak boleh secara kebetulan bahawa Hercules juga muncul di meterai rasmi kota Florence. Di sini, ada pesan dalam seni bahawa bandar ini percaya bahawa ia sama, bahkan mungkin lebih baik daripada mana-mana bandar pada zaman dahulu. Michelangelo jelas telah melampaui batasan patung Klasik dan menciptakan sosok yang sangat tegang, kesan yang hanya ditonjolkan oleh kening David yang berkerut dan tatapan tajam.

Kapel Sistine

Seperti disebutkan, Michelangelo ditugaskan untuk melukis langit-langit Kapel Sistine, sebuah bangunan yang baru siap pada tahun 1480 CE. Silingnya retak parah pada tahun 1504 CE dan telah diperbaiki. Oleh itu, ini adalah peluang untuk menambah hiasan dalaman kapel yang sudah mengagumkan. Michelangelo jauh dari berminat pada proyek yang akan menyibukkannya dari tahun 1508 hingga 1512 Masehi - dan sering terjadi pertengkaran dengan Paus - tetapi hari ini dianggap sebagai salah satu karya tandatangannya. Fresko dicat dengan warna yang sangat terang dan, untuk menolong penonton yang mesti berdiri beberapa meter di bawah, Michelangelo menggunakan teknik warna yang berbeza di antara satu sama lain.

Keseluruhan siling meliputi kawasan berukuran 39 x 13.7 meter (128 x 45 kaki). Panel yang terpisah menunjukkan satu kitaran episod dari Alkitab yang menceritakan Penciptaan hingga zaman Nuh. Menariknya, penciptaan Hawa adalah panel pusat, bukan ciptaan Adam, walaupun ini mungkin kerana pemandangannya bersifat kronologi bermula dari dinding mezbah. Terdapat juga tujuh nabi, lima saudara, dan empat mengabaikan yang tidak ada hubungannya dengan narasi agama tetapi yang menunjukkan cinta Michelangelo terhadap tokoh-tokoh yang berani dalam pose dramatis.

Kerja itu berjaya dengan hampir semua orang yang melihatnya tetapi terdapat beberapa kerisauan. Penolakan utama adalah jumlah ketelanjangan dan penggambaran alat kelamin dalam beberapa angka. Sebagai tambahan, Penghakiman Terakhir bahagian kapel, yang kemudian ditambahkan ke mezbah oleh Michelangelo antara tahun 1536 dan 1541 CE, juga tidak diterima dengan baik oleh beberapa anggota paderi. Fakta bahawa Yesus tidak memiliki janggut konvensional dan kelihatan sedikit lebih muda dari biasa adalah titik pertikaian tertentu. Pemahaman artis tentang teologi penting, atau mungkin kurangnya perhatiannya terhadapnya kerana dia terkenal dengan ketakwaannya, dan kemunculan alat kelamin yang lebih banyak menyebabkan beberapa pendeta pergi sehingga menyatakan karya tersebut sebagai bidaah. Bahkan ada panggilan untuk menghancurkannya. Nasib baik untuk anak cucu, strategi yang lebih sederhana digunakan untuk merangkumi unsur-unsur bogel yang menyinggung perasaan. Tugas mengemas semula lukisan dinding diberikan kepada Daniele da Volterra, dan artis ini akhirnya memperoleh nama panggilan yang agak malang Il Braghettone atau 'pembuat breeches'.

Musa

Seperti disebutkan, Michelangelo ditugaskan oleh Julius II pada tahun 1505 CE untuk merancang makam yang mengagumkan untuk pemimpin Gereja Rom. Bermula di atas kertas sebagai monumen megah, makam itu akhirnya disiapkan pada tahun 1547 CE setelah banyak pemborosan yang dirancang ditinggalkan. Satu yang selamat adalah patung Musa yang diukir oleh Michelangelo yang mempunyai sosok alkitabiah yang memegang tongkatnya dan menarik janggut yang sangat panjang, nampaknya menunjukkan kekagumannya kepada Tuhan. Patung itu dimaksudkan untuk dilihat dari bawah dan oleh itu Michelangelo menggabungkan beberapa pembetulan optik. Angka itu, setinggi 2,35 meter (7 kaki 9 inci), selesai sekitar tahun 1520 CE dan tinggal di gereja San Pietro di Vincoli di Rom.


Pertempuran Centaurs (Michelangelo)

Pertempuran Centaurs lega oleh seniman Renaissance Itali, Michelangelo, yang diciptakan sekitar tahun 1492. Ia adalah karya terakhir yang diciptakan Michelangelo ketika berada di bawah naungan Lorenzo de 'Medici, yang meninggal dunia sejurus selesai. Diilhamkan oleh relief klasik yang diciptakan oleh Bertoldo di Giovanni, patung marmar menggambarkan pertempuran mitos antara Lapith dan Centaur. Subjek seni yang popular di Yunani kuno, kisah itu disarankan kepada Michelangelo oleh sarjana dan penyair klasik Poliziano. Arca itu dipamerkan di Casa Buonarroti di Florence, Itali.

Pertempuran Centaurs
ArtisMichelangelo
Tahunc. 1492
JenisGuli
Dimensi84,5 cm × 90,5 cm (33,3 inci × 35,6 inci)
LokasiCasa Buonarroti

Pertempuran Centaurs adalah patung yang luar biasa dalam beberapa cara, yang menunjukkan arah patung masa depan Michelangelo. Michelangelo telah berlepas dari amalan semasa bekerja di pesawat diskrit untuk bekerja secara multidimensi. Ia juga merupakan patung pertama yang diciptakan Michelangelo tanpa menggunakan gerudi busur dan patung pertama yang mencapai tahap seperti ini dengan tanda pahat subbia yang tersisa untuk berdiri sebagai permukaan akhir. Sama ada sengaja diselesaikan atau tidak, karya itu penting dalam tradisi teknik ukiran "non finito" kerana alasan itu. Michelangelo menganggapnya sebagai yang terbaik dari karya awalnya, dan peringatan visual mengapa dia harus memusatkan usahanya pada patung.


Michelangelo - Sejarah

Daud adalah salah satu patung Renaissance paling indah yang dibuat pada awal tahun 1500an. Karya seni yang terkenal ini diciptakan oleh Michelangelo, seorang seniman Itali yang terkenal. Patung itu berukuran 5,17 meter, dan itu adalah patung marmar dari pahlawan alkitabiah bernama David. Pemuda ini juga merupakan subjek yang paling umum dalam seni Renaissance, terutama di Florence.

Sorotan

Arca itu pada awalnya dimaksudkan sebagai antara patung para nabi yang diletakkan di garis atap bahagian timur Florence. Selanjutnya, ia ditempatkan di dataran umum di Palazzo della Signoria, yang merupakan pusat pemerintahan sipil Florence & # 8217. Kerana sifat berani wira alkitabiah ini, akhirnya menjadi simbol pembelaan kebebasan sipil yang digambarkan di Republik Florentine.

Karya seni itu jauh berbeza dengan patung-patung sebelumnya yang dibuat oleh artis terkenal lain seperti Verrocchio dan Donatello. Daud oleh Michelangelo menggambarkan Daud muda sebelum dia pergi berperang dengan Goliath yang perkasa. Oleh itu, wajah sosok itu kelihatan tegang dan bersedia untuk bertempur dan bukannya menang kerana kekalahan musuh & # 8217.

Ciri-ciri

Karya seni Michelangelo & # 8217 adalah penafsirannya mengenai tema khas Yunani Kuno dari tokoh alkitabiah yang gagah berani. Ia menampilkan pose kontras, yang merupakan aspek khas arca antik. David yang gagah berani berdiri dengan tegang, dengan satu kaki dilonggarkan sementara yang lain menahan berat badannya. Oleh itu, ini menyebabkan bahu dan pinggulnya bersandar pada sudut yang bertentangan. Lebih-lebih lagi, kepala David & # 8217 berpusing ke arah kirinya, dan dia membawa sling di punggungnya. Dengan semua ciri ini, banyak orang menganggap patung itu sebagai simbol kecantikan muda dan kekuatan manusia.

Patung itu juga cukup besar, berbanding dengan artis & # 8217 sezaman pada zaman itu. Sebenarnya, kebanyakan sarjana seni menganggap patung itu ajaib, kerana Michelangelo dapat menghidupkan kembali tokoh terkenal yang sudah mati. Walaupun terdapat banyak patung kolosal yang pernah dibuat dalam sejarah, Daud oleh Michelangelo kekal sebagai salah satu yang terbaik dan paling mengagumkan.

Juga penting untuk diperhatikan bahawa beberapa ciri patung ini nampaknya cukup besar, terutama tangan dan kepala. Namun, artis itu melakukan ini dengan sengaja kerana patung itu dimaksudkan untuk diletakkan di garis atap katedral. Oleh itu, dia perlu mencari cara untuk menonjolkan bahagian-bahagian tertentu yang akan membuatnya kelihatan ketika dilihat dari bawah.

Maklumat tambahan

Angka ini kelihatan agak langsing dari depan ke belakang jika dibandingkan dengan ketinggiannya. Menurut para sarjana, ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kerja yang dilakukan di blok itu sebelum artis mula mengukirnya. Di samping itu, patung itu dianggap sebagai imej politik sebelum keputusannya mengusahakannya.

Jelas, David telah lama menjadi citra politik pilihan di Florence, kerana beberapa karya seni yang menampilkan pahlawan alkitabiah ditugaskan di kebanyakan lokasi penting di kota ini.

Pemeliharaan dan Pemeliharaan

Pada tahun 1991, kaki patung itu rosak teruk ketika seorang lelaki yang tergelincir menghancurkannya dengan tukul. Berdasarkan sampel yang dikumpulkan dari kejadian itu, saintis dapat mengetahui bahawa marmar itu diperoleh dari kuari Miseglia & # 8217s, yang berada di salah satu lembah kecil Carrara & # 8217s. Dengan penurunan marmar, patung tersebut telah menjalani pembersihan besar pertama, dari tahun 2003 hingga 2004. Empat tahun selepas itu, ada rancangan untuk melindungi patung tersebut dari getaran yang disebabkan oleh langkah pelancong & # 8217, untuk mengelakkan lebih jauh dan kerosakan guli yang lebih teruk.

Beberapa pembuatan semula patung telah dibuat selama bertahun-tahun. Contohnya, pelakon wira alkitabiah ini dipamerkan di Muzium Victoria dan Albert. Namun, patung ini mempunyai daun ara plaster, yang diciptakan ketika Ratu Victoria terkejut dengan ketelanjangan patung itu. Daun ara plaster digantung pada gambar menggunakan dua cangkuk, sebelum ada lawatan kerajaan.

Pada abad ke-20, arca telah menjadi istilah ikonik bagi budaya bandar & # 8217. Patung ini juga sering ditiru seperti kaca gentian dan plester marmer tiruan, yang melambangkan suasana penyempurnaan dan budaya dalam pelbagai latar seperti kereta api model, kasino perjudian dan resort pantai. Oleh itu, karya seni itu memang yang terbaik dalam sejarah kerana saiznya yang besar, perincian dan ciri menarik.


Warisan dan pengaruh Michelangelo

Untuk keturunan Michelangelo selalu menjadi salah satu kumpulan kecil seniman yang paling mulia, yang merasa ingin menyatakan, seperti William Shakespeare atau Ludwig van Beethoven, pengalaman tragis kemanusiaan dengan kedalaman dan ruang lingkup universal yang paling besar.

Berbeza dengan kemasyhuran karya artis, pengaruh visual mereka terhadap seni kemudiannya agak terhad. Ini tidak dapat dijelaskan dengan ragu-ragu untuk meniru seni hanya kerana ia kelihatan sangat hebat, kerana seniman seperti Raphael dianggap sama hebat tetapi digunakan sebagai sumber ke tahap yang jauh lebih besar. Sebaliknya, jenis ekspresi tertentu yang berkaitan dengan Michelangelo, dari keagungan hampir kosmik, menghambat. Pengaruh karyanya yang terhad merangkumi beberapa kes bergantung sepenuhnya, artis paling berbakat yang bekerja dengan cara ini adalah Daniele da Volterra. Jika tidak, Michelangelo dianggap sebagai model untuk aspek terhad karyanya. Pada abad ke-17, ia dianggap paling unggul dalam lukisan anatomi tetapi kurang dipuji untuk unsur-unsur seninya yang lebih luas. Sementara Mannerists menggunakan pemampatan spasial yang terlihat dalam beberapa karyanya, dan kemudian serpentin itu mempamerkan patungnya Kemenangan, tuan abad ke-19 Auguste Rodin mengeksploitasi kesan blok marmar yang belum selesai. Beberapa penguasa Baroque abad ke-17 mungkin menunjukkan rujukan sepenuhnya kepadanya, tetapi dengan cara yang telah diubah untuk mengecualikan persamaan harfiah. Selain Gian Lorenzo Bernini, pelukis Peter Paul Rubens mungkin menunjukkan kebergunaan ciptaan Michelangelo untuk seniman hebat kemudian.


Jalur Itali mula merancang kapal baru pada tahun 1958. Pada asalnya kapal itu sedikit lebih besar daripada SS Leonardo da Vinci, yang ketika itu sedang dibangun, tetapi pesawat jet belum memberikan kesan penting di kawasan Mediterranean dan sepasang superliner tulen nampaknya diinginkan, baik dari sudut komersial dan untuk memberikan pekerjaan kepada pelaut dan pekerja galangan kapal. Diputuskan bahawa kapal-kapal baru akan menjadi yang terbesar yang dibina di Itali sejak SS Rex pada tahun 1932.

Diputuskan bahawa penginapan di kapal akan dibahagikan kepada tiga kelas. Atas sebab-sebab tertentu, juga diputuskan bahawa tiga geladak penumpang paling bawah tidak akan mempunyai jalan masuk. Telah diklaim bahawa ini membuat bentuk lambung kapal yang ramping, tetapi sepertinya tidak mungkin benar kerana kapal dengan nisbah panjang / lebar serupa telah dibina dengan tingkap di sepanjang seluruh kapal. Walau apa pun kekurangan dalam reka bentuk awal mereka, saudara perempuan baru maju dari segi teknologi. Ciri yang paling mencolok dalam kapal adalah corong polieknik Turin mereka, yang terdiri daripada saluran paip seperti teralis yang rumit (bukannya permukaan genap tradisional) untuk membolehkan angin melewati corong, dan sirip pemutar asap besar di bahagian atas . Walaupun dikritik, reka bentuk corong terbukti sangat berkesan untuk menjaga asap dari geladak belakang. Penghancur asap menjadi popular dalam reka bentuk kapal pada tahun 1970-an dan 1980-an, sedangkan idea untuk membiarkan angin melalui corong diambil kembali pada akhir 1980-an dan hampir menjadi kebiasaan dalam pembuatan kapal moden.

The Michelangelo Bahagian dalamannya direka oleh arkitek angkatan laut Nino Zoncada, Vincenzo Monaco dan Amedeo Luccichenti, yang memberikan kapal itu penampilan yang lebih berani, lebih tradisional daripada perancang kakaknya Raffaello.

Selepas beberapa kelewatan Michelangelo, di bawah komando Kapten Senior Mario Crepaz, akhirnya siap untuk bertugas pada bulan Mei 1965. Semasa percubaan di laut beberapa getaran dikesan di buritan kapal. Michelangelo dikeringkan pada bulan Disember 1965 dan menerima baling-baling baru dan beberapa modifikasi pada penghantarannya. Dia mencatat 31.59 knot semasa percubaan pasca penyesuaian, menjadikannya kapal penumpang terpantas kelima di dunia pada masa itu.

Pada hari Selasa pagi, 12 April 1966, lima hari setelah bertolak dari Genoa, Michelangelo, di bawah komando Kapten Kanan Giuseppe Soletti, dilanda gelombang yang luar biasa besar semasa ribut di pertengahan Atlantik, yang menyebabkan bahagian depan struktur atasnya runtuh, atau didorong ke belakang, dan membunuh penumpang Dr. Werner Berndt dari Hamburg, Jerman dan John Steinbach dari Chicago. Seorang anak kapal, Desiderio Ferrari, meninggal beberapa jam kemudian dan lebih 50 orang cedera. Di antara 1.495 penumpang yang berada di persimpangan ini adalah Laksamana Ernesto Giurati, Presiden Jalur Itali dan mantan Panglima Tentera Laut Itali, Ketua Protokol Itali, Angelo Corrias, yang sedang menuju percutian di Amerika Syarikat, novelis Jerman, Günter Grass dan penulisnya. isteri Anna, dan juga Bob Montana bersama isteri dan empat anaknya. Semasa pembaikan dilakukan selepas kemalangan, penyaduran aluminium di struktur atas digantikan oleh plat keluli. Pembinaan semula serupa dilakukan di Raffaello dan kapal kontemporari lain seperti SS Amerika Syarikat dan SS Perancis. [1]

Pada bulan Mei 1972, Alfred Hitchcock melakukan pelayaran di kapal ini dari New York untuk pemeriksaannya Kegilaan di Festival Filem Cannes.

Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, jumlah penumpang dalam perdagangan Transatlantik merosot secara berterusan kerana persaingan dari udara, dan semakin banyak kapal ditarik. The Michelangelo menghabiskan lebih banyak masa untuk berlayar ke perairan yang lebih panas, tetapi dia membuat kapal pesiar yang buruk dengan kabin tanpa tingkap dan susun atur tiga kelasnya. Dia mempunyai geladak lido besar yang lebih unggul daripada kapal pesiar yang paling banyak dibuat pada masa itu, tetapi itu tidak mencukupi untuk mengimbangi kekurangan kapal, dan Italian Line tidak mempunyai dana yang cukup untuk membina semula kapal untuk menjadikannya lebih berguna kapal penjelajah. Selain itu, dia dianggap terlalu besar untuk dijadikan kapal pesiar mengikut standard masa itu.

SS unggulan Itali Michelangelo melintasi Atlantik terakhirnya pada bulan Julai 1975, di bawah arahan Kapten Senior Claudio Cosulich. Selepas itu dia dibaringkan di La Spezia bersama kakaknya. Beberapa pembeli (termasuk Knut Kloster dari Norwegian Cruise Line) memeriksa kapal-kapal itu tetapi tidak mahu membelinya kerana kos yang diperlukan untuk memodenkannya dengan standard kapal pesiar. Terdapat satu pembeli serius, Home Lines, yang ingin membeli kapal dan menyimpannya di bawah bendera Itali untuk pelayaran di Caribbean. Talian Itali enggan menjual saudara perempuan itu, dilaporkan kerana mereka merasa menjaga bendera Itali akan mengaitkan "orang yang kehilangan wang" yang memalukan dengan mereka.

Pada tahun 1976 seorang pembeli didapati bersetuju dengan syarat yang dicari oleh Italian Line. Shah Iran membeli kapal-kapal itu, untuk digunakan sebagai barak terapung. Kapal yang berharga $ 45 juta setiap satu kini dijual dengan harga $ 2 juta per kapal. The Michelangelo berakhir di Bandar Abbas di mana dia akan menghabiskan lima belas tahun ke depan.

Pada tahun 1978 rancangan dibuat untuk merekonstruksinya sebagai kapal pesiar mewah Scià Reza il Grande (untuk menghormati Rezā Shāh). Namun, pasukan pakar yang dihantar dari Itali untuk memeriksa kapal tersebut sampai pada kesimpulan bahawa dia terlalu parah untuk membuat pembangunan semula sebagai pilihan yang sesuai. Rancangan serupa dibuat lagi pada tahun 1983, tetapi mereka juga gagal.

Akhirnya, pada bulan Jun 1991 dia dihalau di halaman pecah kapal Gadani, Pakistan. [2]


Michelangelo - Biografi dan Warisan

Michelangelo dilahirkan oleh Leonardo di Buonarrota dan Francesca di Neri del Miniato di Siena, keluarga banker kelas menengah di kampung kecil Caprese, dekat Arezzo, di Tuscany. Penyakit ibunya yang malang dan berpanjangan memaksa ayahnya menempatkan anaknya dalam jagaan pengasuhnya. Suami pengasuh itu adalah tukang batu, bekerja di kuari marmar ayahnya sendiri.

Ketika Michelangelo berusia enam tahun, ibunya meninggal namun dia terus tinggal bersama pasangan dan legenda itu mengatakan bahawa keadaan tidak konvensional ini sejak kecil akan menjadi asas untuk hubungan cinta kemudian dengan marmar.

Pada saat dia berusia 13 tahun, jelas bagi ayahnya bahawa Michelangelo tidak memiliki kemampuan untuk panggilan keluarga. Anak muda itu dihantar ke magang di studio Domenico Ghirlandaio yang terkenal. Setelah hanya setahun berada di studio, Lorenzo de 'Medici dari keluarga pelindung seni Florentine yang terkenal meminta Ghirlandaio untuk dua pelajar terbaiknya. Michelangelo, bersama dengan Francesco Granacci, dipilih untuk menghadiri akademi Humanis keluarga Medici. Ini adalah masa yang berkembang pesat di Renaissance Florence ketika para seniman didorong untuk mempelajari bidang kemanusiaan, menonjolkan usaha kreatif mereka dengan pengetahuan tentang seni dan falsafah Yunani dan Rom kuno. Seni berangkat dari ikonografi Gothic dan karya kebaktian dan berkembang menjadi perayaan besar manusia dan kepentingannya di dunia. Michelangelo belajar di bawah pemahat terkenal Bertoldo di Giovanni, mendapat pendedahan mengenai patung-patung klasik yang hebat di istana Lorenzo.

Selama ini, Michelangelo mendapat izin dari Gereja Katolik Santo Spirito untuk mempelajari mayat di hospital mereka agar dia mendapat pemahaman tentang anatomi. Sebagai balasannya, dia mengukir kayu salib kepada mereka. Kemampuannya untuk secara tepat menjadikan nada otot yang realistik dihasilkan dari pendidikan awal ini seperti yang dibuktikan dalam dua patung yang bertahan dari masa itu Madonna duduk di tangga (1491) dan Pertempuran Centaurs (1492).

Latihan dan Kerja Awal

Berikutan kematian Lorenzo di Medici pada tahun 1492 Michelangelo tetap memiliki keamanan relatif di Florence. Tetapi ketika kota Florentine dilanda kekacauan politik, keluarga Medici diusir dan artis itu pindah ke Bologna. Di Bologna, dia menerima komisi untuk menyelesaikan ukiran Makam St Dominic, yang meliputi penambahan patung St Petronius, malaikat berlutut yang memegang lilin, dan St Proculus.

Michelangelo kembali ke Florence pada tahun 1494 setelah ancaman pencerobohan Perancis mereda. Dia mengusahakan dua patung, Yohanes Pembaptis, dan cupid kecil. The Cupid dijual kepada Kardinal Riario dari San Giorgio, meninggal sebagai patung antik. Walaupun kesal kerana ditipu, Kardinal cukup terkesan dengan pengerjaan Michelangelo untuk mengajaknya ke Rom untuk komisen lain. Untuk komisi ini, Michelangelo membuat patung Bacchus, yang ditolak oleh Kardinal yang menganggapnya tidak bijaksana secara politik untuk dikaitkan dengan tokoh bogel kafir. Michelangelo was indignant - so much so that he later asked his biographer Condivi to deny the commission was from the Cardinal and instead to record it as a commission from his banker, Jacopo Galli. The artist's impetuous nature was already garnering him the reputation of being one who indignantly did what he wanted, oftentimes eschewing his patron's wishes or failing to complete work once started.

Michelangelo remained in Rome after completing the Bacchus, and in 1497 the French Ambassador, Cardinal Jean Bilhères de Lagraulas commissioned his Pietà for the chapel of the King of France in St Peter 's Basilica. The Pietà was to become one of Michelangelo's most famous carvings, which the 16th-century biographer Giorgio Vasari, described as something "nature is scarcely able to create in the flesh." His acuity with emotional expression and lifelike realism in the piece, garnered the artist much awe and attention.

Although his status as one of the period's most talented artists following the completion of the Pietà was secure, Michelangelo didn't receive any major commissions over the next two years. Financially, however this absence of work wasn't of much concern. Wealth didn't seem to affect the artist's lifestyle. As he would say to Condivi towards the end of his life, "However rich I may have been, I have always lived like a poor man."

In 1497, the puritanical monk Girolamo Savonarola became famous for his Bonfire of the Vanities, an event in which he and his supporters burned art and books in Florence, causing a cease to what had been a thriving period of the Renaissance. Michelangelo would have to wait until Savonarola's ousting in 1498 before returning to his beloved Florence.

In 1501, his most notable achievement was born through a commission from the Guild of Wool to complete an unfinished project begun by Agostino di Duccio some 40 years earlier. This project, finally completed in 1504, was a majestic, 17-foot tall nude statue of the biblical hero David. The work was a testament to the artist's unparalleled excellence at carving breathtakingly precise depictions of real life out of inanimate marble.

Several painting commissions followed after David's completion. In particular, Michelangelo's only known finished painting that has survived, Doni Tondo (The Holy Family) (1504).

During this time of the High Renaissance in Florence, rivalries between Michelangelo and his artist peers abounded, each fighting for prime commissions and revered social status as noted masters of their fields.

Leonardo da Vinci had quickly risen to fame and the competition between he and Michelangelo was legendary. In 1503, Piero Soderini, the lifetime Gonfalonier of Justice (senior civil servant akin to a Mayor), commissioned them both to paint two opposing walls of the Salone dei Cinquecento in the Palazzo Vecchio. Both paintings were never finished and are unfortunately lost. Leonardo The Battle of Anghiari was painted over when Vasari later reconstructed the Palazzo. Michelangelo's work on The Battle of Cascina was interrupted in the preparatory drawing stage when Pope Julius II summoned him to Rome. Michelangelo was seduced by the flamboyant reputation of the patron Pope who was luring other artist peers such as Donato Bramante and Raphael to create exciting new projects. Never one to be bested by his rivals, he accepted the invitation.

Mature Period

In Rome, Michelangelo started work on the Pope's tomb, work that was to be completed within a five-year timeline. Yet, the artist would abandon the project after being cajoled by the Pope for another commission. The project was the painting of the Sistine Chapel's ceiling and rumor has it that Bramante, the architect in charge of rebuilding St. Peter's Basilica, was the one to convince the Pope that Michelangelo was the man for the job. Bramante was notoriously consumed by envy, and knowing that Michelangelo was better known for his sculptures rather than paintings, was certain that his rival would fail. He hoped this would cause the artist to fall out of popular favor. Michelangelo reluctantly accepted the commission.

Michelangelo would work on the Sistine Chapel for the next four years. It was a difficult job of extraordinary endurance, especially since the tempestuous artist had sacked all of his assistants save one who helped him mix paint. What resulted was a monumental work of great genius illustrating stories from the Old Testament including the Creation of the World and Noah and the Flood. Contrary to Bramante's hopes, it became (and remains) one of the greatest masterpieces of Western Art.

Another noted rival was the young 26-year-old Raphael who had burst upon the scene and was chosen in 1508 to paint a fresco in Pope Julius II's private library, a commission vied for by both Michelangelo and Leonardo. When Leonardo's health began to fail, Raphael became Michelangelo's greatest artistic adversary. Because of Raphael's acuity with depicting anatomy and his finesse for painting nudes, Michelangelo would often accuse him of copying his own work. Although influenced by Michelangelo, Raphael resented Michelangelo's animosity toward him. He responded by painting the artist with his traditional sulking face in the guise of Heraclitus in his famous fresco The School of Athens (1509-1511).

Following Pope Julius II's death in 1513 Michelangelo was commissioned by the new Pope Leo X to work on the façade of the Basilica San Lorenzo, the largest church in Florence. He spent the next three years on it before the project was cancelled due to lack of funds. In 1520, he received another commission for a Medici chapel in the Basilica of San Lorenzo on which he worked intermittently for the next twenty years. During those two decades, he would also complete an architectural commission for the Laurentian Library.

After the sack of Rome by Charles V in 1527, Florence was declared a republic and stayed under siege until 1530. Having worked prior to the siege for the defense of Florence, Michelangelo feared for his life and fled back to Rome. Despite his support for the republic, he was welcomed by Pope Clement and given a new contract for the tomb of Pope Julius II. It was also during this time he was commissioned to paint the fresco of the Last Judgement on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, a project that would take seven years.

Although a late bloomer relationship wise, at age 57, Michelangelo would establish the first of three notable friendships, sparking a prolific poetic output to add to his cadre of artistic talents. The first in 1532 was a 23-year-old Italian nobleman, Tommaso dei Cavalieri, who was not only the artist's young lover but remained a lifelong friend. The art historian, Howard Hibbard, quotes Michelangelo describing Tommaso as the "light of our century, paragon of all the world." The passionate affair provoked Michelangelo to produce a number of love poems so homoerotic in nature that his grandnephew, upon publishing the volume in 1623, changed the gender pronouns to disguise their homosexual context.

In 1536, Michelangelo found another lifelong object of affection, the widow, Vittoria Colonna, the Marquise of Pescara, who was also a poet. The majority of his prolific poetry is devoted to her, and his adoration continued until her death in 1547. He also gave her paintings and drawings, and one of the most beautiful to have survived is the black chalk drawing Pietà for Vittoria Colonna of 1546. She was the only woman who played a significant part in Michelangelo's life and their relationship is generally believed to have been platonic. During this period, he also worked on a number of architectural commissions including the Church of Santa Maria degli Angeli and the Sforza Chapel in the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, as well as the Capitoline Hill. He also received commissions for two frescos in the Cappella Paolina the Conversion of St Paul, and the Crucifixion of St Peter.

In 1540, Michelangelo met Cecchino dei Bracci, son of a wealthy Florentine banker, at the Court of Pope Paul III, who was only 12 years old. The epitaphs Michelangelo wrote following Cecchino's death four years later reveal the extent of their relationship, suggesting they were lovers. In particular one, which includes the graphic allusion, "Do yet attest for him how gracious I was in bed. When he embraced, and in what the soul doth live."

Late Period

It was Pope Julius II who, in 1504, proposed demolishing the old St Peter's Basilica and replacing it with the "grandest building in Christendom." Although the design by Donato Bramante had been selected in 1505, and foundations lain the following year, not much progress had been made since. By the time Michelangelo reluctantly took over this project from his noted rival in 1546 he was in his seventies, stating, "I undertake this only for the love of God and in honor of the Apostle."

Michelangelo worked continuously throughout the rest of his life on the Basilica. His most important contribution to the project was his work upon the dome in the eastern end of the Basilica. He combined the design ideas of all the prior architects who had given input on the work, which imagined a large dome comparable to Brunelleschi's famous dome in Florence, and coalesced them with his own grand visions. Although the dome was not finished until after his death, the base on which the dome was to be placed was completed, which meant the design of the dome could not be altered significantly in its completion. Still the largest church in the world, it remains a testament to his genius and his devotion. He continued to sculpt but did so privately for personal pleasure rather than work. He completed a number of Pietàs termasuk Disposition (which he attempted to destroy), as well as his last, the Rondanini Pietà, on which he worked until the last weeks before his death.

It's been said that it takes 10,000 hours of deliberate practice to become world class in any field. Michelangelo epitomized this ideal as he started his career as a mere boy and continued working until his death at 88 years old.

His great love Tommaso remained with him until the end when Michelangelo died at home in Rome following a short illness in 1564. Per his wishes, his body was taken back to Florence and interred at the Basilica di Santa Croce.

The Legacy of Michelangelo

Along with Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael, Michelangelo is regarded as one of the three giants of the Renaissance, and a major contributor to the Humanist movement. Humanity, in both its relationship to the divine and non-secular reality was central to his painting and sculpture. He was a master at depicting the body with such technical accuracy that marble was seemingly transformed into flesh and bone. His adeptness with human emotionality and expression inspired humility and veneration. The psychological insight and physical realism in his work had never been portrayed with such intensity before. Dia Pieta, Daud, dan juga Kapel Sistine have been maintained and preserved and continue to draw crowds of visitors from all over the world. His lifetime achievements give credence to the title commonly bestowed to him of Il Divino (The Divine).

Michelangelo's influence on other artists was profound and has continued from Raphael in his time to Rubens, through to Bernini, and the last great sculptor to follow his tradition of realism, Rodin.

His fame, established when he was in his early twenties, has continued to our time. As for his genius look to Galileo, who claimed he was born a day earlier, to coincide with the day Michelangelo died, alluding to the assertion that genius never dies.


How Did Michelangelo Change the World?

Michelangelo changed the world by helping people view art and artists differently. His art was remarkable because of this, the world began to recognize artists and their art as important additions to society.

Prior to Michelangelo, artists did not receive individual attention or notoriety for their work. They were seen as nothing more than journeymen.

Michelangelo changed the world's opinion of artists through his extraordinary works of art. With groundbreaking art, he created some of the most revered pieces known to man his attention to detail made these works remarkable. Michelangelo was best known as a sculptor, and his infamous David, with lifelike characteristics carved in marble, is still considered a masterpiece. Other notable sculptures include Pieta, Moses, and Madonna and Child.

Michelangelo was not just a sculptor he was an important painter and prolific architect as well. His paintings are considered some of the world's greatest showpieces. These paintings include the elaborate and detailed Sistine Chapel ceiling, which includes various painted elements to form a large scheme within the Chapel. As an architect, he designed the final plans for the St. Peter's Cathedral in the Vatican.

His work is considered the beginning of the High Renaissance, a period of time where the world came to recognize and appreciate the value of visual arts.


Accomplishments

  • His early studies of classical Greek and Roman sculpture, coupled with a study of cadavers, led Michelangelo to become an expert at anatomy. The musculature of his bodies is so authentically precise that they've been said to breathe upon sight.
  • Michelangelo's dexterity with carving an entire sculpture from a single block of marble remains unparalleled. He once said, "I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free." He was known as one who could conjure real life from stone.
  • The artist's feisty and tempestuous personality is legendary. He often abandoned projects midway through or played out his pride or defiance of conventionality through controversial means such as painting his own face on figures in his work, the faces of his enemies in mocking fashion, or unabashedly portraying sacred characters in the nude.
  • Michelangelo's most seminal pieces: the massive painting of the biblical narratives in the Sistine Chapel, the 17-foot tall testament to male perfection David, and the heartbreakingly genuine Pietà are considered some of the world's most genius works of art, drawing large numbers of tourists to this day.

Madonna of Bruges

The Madonna of Bruges is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo of the Virgin and Child.

Madonna and Child
ArtisMichelangelo
Tahun1501–1504
JenisGuli
Dimensi200 cm (79 in)
LokasiOnze Lieve Vrouwekerk, Bruges
Koordinat Coordinates: 51°12′17″N 3°13′28″E  /  51.20472°N 3.22444°E  / 51.20472 3.22444

Michelangelo's depiction of the Madonna and Child differs significantly from earlier representations of the same subject, which tended to feature a pious Virgin smiling down on an infant held in her arms. Instead, Jesus stands upright, almost unsupported, only loosely restrained by Mary's left hand, and appears to be about to step away from his mother. Meanwhile, Mary does not cling to her son or even look at him, but gazes down and away. It is believed the work was originally intended for an altar piece. If this is so, then it would have been displayed facing slightly to the right and looking down. The early 16th-century sculpture also displays the High Renaissance Pyramid style frequently seen in the works of Leonardo da Vinci during the late 1400s.

Madonna and Child shares certain similarities with Michelangelo's Pietà, which was completed shortly before – mainly, the chiaroscuro effect and movement of the drapery. The long, oval face of Mary is also reminiscent of the Pietà.

The work is also notable in that it was the only sculpture by Michelangelo to leave Italy during his lifetime. In 1504, it was bought by Giovanni and Alessandro Moscheroni (Mouscron), who were wealthy cloth merchants in Bruges, [1] then one of the leading commercial cities in Europe. The sculpture was sold for 4,000 florins.

The sculpture was removed twice from Belgium after its initial arrival. The first was in 1794 after French Revolutionaries had conquered the Austrian Netherlands during the French Revolutionary Wars the citizens of Bruges were ordered to ship it and several other valuable works of art to Paris. It was returned after Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo in 1815. The second removal was in 1944, during World War II, with the retreat of German soldiers, who smuggled the sculpture to Germany enveloped in mattresses in a Red Cross truck. [2] It was discovered a year later in Altaussee, Austria within a salt mine and again returned. It now sits in the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, Belgium. This is represented in the 2014 film The Monuments Men.


The Creation of Adam, by Michelangelo

Of all the marvelous images that crowd the immense complex of the Sistine Ceiling, Penciptaan Adam is undoubtedly the one which has most deeply impressed posterity. No wonder, for here we are given a single overwhelming vision of the sublimity of God and the potential nobility of man unprecedented and unrivaled in the entire history of visual art. No longer standing upon earth with closed eyes and mantle, the Lord floats through the heavens, His mantle widespread and bursting with angelic forms, and His calm gaze accompanying and reinforcing the movement of His mighty arm. He extends His forefinger, about to touch that of Adam, who reclines on the barren coast of earth, barely able as yet to lift his hand. The divine form is convex, explosive, paternal the human concave, receptive, and conspicuously impotent. The incipient, fecundating contact about to take place between the two index fingers has often been described as a spark or a current, a modern electrical metaphor doubtless foreign to the sixteenth century, but natural enough considering the river of life which seems about to flow into the waiting body.

Genesis tells how the Lord created Adam from the dust of the earth and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. This story is never illustrated literally in Renaissance art. Usually, as in Jacopo della Quercia's beautiful relief on the facade of the church of San Petronio in Bologna, which must have impressed the young Michelangelo deeply, the Creator stands on earth and blesses the already formed body of Adam, read together with the ground, since his name in Hebrew means earth. Michelangelo's completely new image seems to symbolize a still further idea - the instillation of divine power in humanity, which took place at the Incarnation. Given Cardinal Vigerio's reiterated insistence on the doctrine of the two Adams, and the position of the scene immediately after the barrier to the sanctuary, at the spot where the Annunciation customarily appeared, and after Ezekiel with his vision of the Virgin Birth, this would seem natural enough. The scene recalls the famous verses from Isaiah, "Who hath believed our report ? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed ? For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground . . " invariably taken by theologians to foretell the Incarnation of Christ, shoot of Jesse's rod. Two striking visual elements make clear that this was one of the passages that actually recommended to Michelangelo by his probable adviser, Cardinal Vigerio. First, the mighty right arm of the Lord is revealed, naked as in no other of His appearances on the Sistine Ceiling, nor anywhere else, as far as I have been able to determine, in all of the Christian art prior to this time. (The left arm is clothed, at least to the elbow, by a white sleeve.) Second, directly under Adam, the arm of the veiled youth to the left above the Persian Sibyl projects into the scene - a matter that involved considerable advance planning - coming as close to touching Adam's thigh as the Creator does his finger. This hand holds a cornucopia bursting with Rovere leaves and acorns, appearing to grow from the dry ground, as full of potency as Adam ("ground") is empty of it. Such an image is characteristic not only of Michelangelo, who insofar as possible preferred to show male figures, including that of Christ, completely naked, but of the Roman High Renaissance and of Julius II himself, whose language as recorded by his astonished contemporaries overflows with boasts of his own physical strength and potency.


Michelangelo Artworks

This statue of Bacchus depicts the Roman god of wine precariously perched on a rock in a state of drunkenness. He wears a wreath of ivy and holds a goblet in one hand, brought up toward his lips for a drink. In the other hand, he holds a lion skin, which is a symbol for death derived from the myth of Hercules. From behind his left leg peeks a satyr, significant to the cult of Bacchus often representing a drunken, lusty, woodland deity.

The work, one of Michelangelo's earliest, caused much controversy. It was originally commissioned by Cardinal Riario and was inspired by a description of a lost bronze sculpture by the ancient sculptor Praxiteles. But when Riario saw the finished piece he found it inappropriate and rejected it. Michelangelo sold it to his banker Jacopo Galli instead.

Despite its colored past though, the piece is evidence of Michelangelo's early genius. His excellent knowledge of anatomy is seen in the androgynous figure's body which Vasari described as having the "the slenderness of a young man and the fleshy roundness of a woman." A high center of gravity lends the figure a sense of captured movement, which Michelangelo would later perfect even further for Daud. Although intended to mimic classical Greek sculpture and distressed toward an antique appearance, Michelangelo remained true to what in visual human terms it means to be drunk the unseemly swaying body was unlike any depiction of a god in classical Greek and Roman sculpture. Art historian Claire McCoy said of the sculpture, "Bacchus marked a moment when originality and imitation of the antique came together."

Marble - Museo del Bargello, Florence

Pietà

This was the first of a number of Pietàs Michelangelo worked on during his lifetime. It depicts the body of Jesus in the lap of his mother after the Crucifixion. This particular scene is one of the seven sorrows of Mary used in Catholic devotional prayers and depicts a key moment in her life foretold by the prophet, Simeon.

Cardinal Jean de Bilhères commissioned the work, stating that he wanted to acquire the most beautiful work of marble in Rome, one that no living artist could better. The 24-year-old Michelangelo answered this call, carving the work in two years out of a single block of marble.

Although the work continued a long tradition of devotional images used as aids for prayer, which was developed in Germany in the 1300s, the depiction was uniquely connotative of Italian Renaissance art of the time. Many artists were translating traditional religious narratives in a highly humanist vein blurring the boundaries between the divine and man by humanizing noted biblical figures and taking liberties with expression. Mary was a common subject, portrayed in myriad ways, and in this piece Michelangelo presented her not as a woman in her fifties, but as an unusually youthful beauty. As Michelangelo related to his biographer Ascanio Condivi, "Do you not know that chaste women stay fresh much more than those who are not chaste?"

Not only was Pietà the first depiction of the scene in marble, but Michelangelo also moved away from the depiction of the Virgin's suffering which was usually portrayed in Pietàs of the time, instead presenting her with a deep sense of maternal tenderness for her child. Christ too, shows little sign of his recent crucifixion with only slightly discernible small nail marks in his hands and the wound in his side. Rather than a dead Christ, he looks as if he is asleep in the arms of his mother as she waits for him to awake, symbolic of the resurrection.

A pyramidal structure signature to the time was also used: Mary's head at the top and then the gradual widening through her layered garments to the base. The draped clothing gives credence to Michelangelo's mastery of marble, as they retain a sense of flowing movement, far removed from the typical characteristic of stone.

This is the only sculpture Michelangelo ever signed. In a fiery fit of reaction to rumors circulating that the piece was made by one of his competitors, Cristoforo Solari, he carved his name across Mary's sash right between her breasts. He also split his name in two as Michael Angelus, which can be seen as a reference to the Archangel Michael - an egotistical move and one he would later regret. He swore to never again sign another piece and stayed true to his word.

The Pietà became famous immediately following its completion and was pivotal in contributing to Michelangelo's fame. Despite an attack in 1972, which damaged Mary's arm and face, it was restored and continues to inspire awe in visitors to this day.

Marble - St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, Rome

Daud

This 17 foot tall statue depicts the prophet David, majestic and nude, with the slingshot he used to kill Goliath, slung victoriously over one shoulder.

The piece was commissioned by the Opera del Duomo for the Cathedral of Florence, a project that was originally meant to be a series of sculptures of prophets for the rooftop. Although David's familiarity stems from the classic religious tale, the statue became not only a rendition of the tale, but a symbol for the new Florentine Republic of its defiant independence from Medici rule.

Considered one of Michelangelo's great masterpieces. An exquisite example of his knowledge of anatomy can be seen in David's musculature, his strength emphasized through the classical kontrapposto stance, with weight shifting onto his right leg. A sense of naturalism is conveyed in the way the body stands determined, a confident glare on the young man's face. The top half of the body was made slightly larger than the legs so that viewers glancing up at it or from afar would experience a more authentic perspective. The realism was seen as so powerful that Vasari praised it as Michelangelo's "miracle. to restore life to one who was dead."

During the Early Renaissance, Donatello had revived the classical nude as subject matter and made a David of his own. But Michelangelo's version, with its towering height, is unmistakably the most iconic version. As was customary to Michelangelo and his work, this statue was simultaneously revered and controversial.

The plaster cast of Daud now resides at the Victoria and Albert Museum. During visits by notable women such as Queen Victoria, a detachable plaster fig leaf was added, strategically placed atop the private parts.

On another occasion, a replica of Daud was offered to the municipality of Jerusalem to mark the 3,000th anniversary of King David's conquest of the city. Religious factions in Jerusalem urged that the gift be declined because the naked figure was considered pornographic. A fully clad replica of Daud by Andrea del Verrocchio, a Florentine contemporary of Michelangelo, was donated instead.

Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence - Marble

Doni Tondo (Holy Family)

Holy Family, the only finished panel painting by the artist to survive, was commissioned by Agnolo Doni for his marriage to Maddalena Strozzi, daughter of a powerful Tuscan family, which gives it its name. It portrays Jesus, Mary, Joseph, and an infant John the Baptist. The intimate tenderness of the figures governed by the father's loving gaze emphasizes the love of family and divine love, representing the cores of Christian faith. In contrast, the five nude males in the background symbolize pagans awaiting redemption. The round (tondo) form was customary for private commissions and Michelangelo designed the intricate gold carved wooden frame. The work is believed to be entirely by his hand.

We find many of the artist's influences in this painting, including Signorelli's Madonna. It is also said to have been influenced by Leonardo's The Virgin and Child with St Anne, a cartoon (full scale drawing) that Michelangelo saw while working on his Daud in 1501. The nude figures in the background are said to have been influenced by the ancient statue of Laocoön dan Anak-AnakNya (the Trojan priest) attributed to the Greek sculptors Agesander, Athenodoros and Polydorus, which was excavated in Rome in 1506 and publicly displayed in the Vatican.

Yet influences aside, the piece is distinctly Michelangelo, an example of his individualism, which was considered very avant-garde for the time. It was a significant shift from the serene, static rendition of figures depicted in classical Roman and Greek sculpture. Its twisting figures signify enormous energy and movement and the vibrant colors add to the majesty of the work, which were later used in his frescos in the Sistine Chapel. The soft modelling of the figures in the background with the focused details in the foreground gives this small painting great depth.

This painting is said to have laid the foundations of Mannerism which in contrast to the High Renaissance devotion to proportion and idealized beauty, preferred exaggeration and affectation rather than natural realism.

Tempera on panel - Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Penciptaan Adam

This legendary painting, part of the vast masterpiece that adorns the Sistine Chapel, shows Adam as a muscular classical nude, reclining on the left, as he extends his hand toward God who fills the right half of the painting. God rushes toward him, his haste conveyed by his white flaring robe and the energetic movements of his body. God is surrounded by angels and cherubim, all encased within a red cloud, while a feminine figure thought to be Eve or Sophia, symbol of wisdom, peers out with curious interest from underneath God's arm. Behind Adam, the green ledge upon which he lies, and the mountainous background create a strong diagonal, emphasizing the division between mortal he and heavenly God. As a result the viewer's eye is drawn to the hands of God and Adam, outlined in the central space, almost touching. Some have noted that the shape of the red cloud resembles the shape of the human brain, as if the artist meant to imply God's intent to infuse Adam with not merely animate life, but also the important gift of consciousness.

This was an innovative depiction of the creation of Adam. Contrary to traditional artworks, God is not shown as aloof and regal, separate and above mortal man. For Michelangelo, it was important to depict the all-powerful giver of life as one distinctly intimate with man, whom he created in his own image. This reflected the humanist ideals of man's essential place in the world and the connection to the divine. The bodies maintain the sculptural quality so reminiscent of his painting, carrying on the mastery of human anatomy signature to the High Renaissance.

Many subsequent artists have studied and attempted to imitate parts of the work for what art historians Gabriele Bartz and Eberhard König called its "unprecedented invention." It is also one of the most parodied of Michelangelo's works, seen as humorous inspiration for The Creation of Muppet by artist James Hance in homage to Muppets creator Jim Henson used in the title sequence of the television arts program The Southbank Show borrowed from for the promotional poster for Steven Spielberg's movie ET and derived from for artist TasoShin's The Creation of Mario in homage to Miyamoto's contribution to Nintendo games.

Fresco - Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome

Musa

This grand epic sized statue depicts Moses seated regally to guard the tablets written with the Ten Commandments. His expression is stern, reflecting his anger at seeing his people worshipping the golden calf on his return from Mount Sinai.

Michelangelo's reputation following the sculpture of Daud reached Pope Julius II in Rome who commissioned the artist to come and work on his tomb. The ambitious artist initially proposed a project of over 40 figures. Yet In the final structure the central piece became this sculpture of Moses. Not only has he rendered the great prophet with a complex emotionality, his work on the fabric of Moses' clothes is noted for its exquisite perfection and look of authenticity. Again, he managed to craft a visage of seeming real life out of stone.

Pope Julius II famously interrupted Michelangelo's work on the tomb so that he could paint the Sistine Chapel. The final tomb wasn't finished until after the Pope's death in 1513, to be finally completed in 1545.

This sculpture has been at the center of much analysis, with Sigmund Freud having purportedly spent three weeks in 1913 observing the emotions expressed by the sculpture, concluding it was a supreme vision of self-control. Part of the controversy hinged around what appear to be horns protruding from Moses' head. While some see them as symbolic of his anguish, others believe them to hearken to a Latin mistranslation of the Bible in which instead of rays of light illuminating the radiance of Moses, he appears to be growing horns. This can stem from the Hebrew word Keren, which can mean 'radiated light' or 'grew horns.'

The work was eventually housed in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome where Pope Julius II had been Cardinal.

Marble - San Pietro Vincoli, Rome

The Last Judgement

This fresco covers the entire altar wall of the Sistine Chapel and is one of the last pieces in the seminal building that was commissioned by Pope Clement VII when Michelangelo was 62. In it we see the Second Coming of Christ as he delivers the Last Judgement. The monumental work took five years to complete and consists of over 300 individual figures. The scene is one of harried action around the central figure of Christ, his hands raised to reveal the wounds of his Crucifixion. He looks down upon the souls of humans as they rise to their fates. To his left, the Virgin Mary glances toward the saved. On either side of Christ is John the Baptist and St Peter holding the keys to heaven. Many of the saints appear with examples of their sacrifices. Particularly interesting is St Bartholomew, martyred by the flaying of his skin, the face on which is said to be a self-portrait of Michelangelo. The saved souls rise from their graves on the left helped by angels. On the right, Charon the ferryman is shown bringing the damned to the gates of Hell. Minos, assuming the role Dante gave him in his Inferno, admits them to Hell. Another noteworthy group are the seven angels blowing trumpets illustrating the Book of Revelation's end of the world.

In usual Michelangelo fashion, the artist depicted the traditional scene with elements of controversy, particularly by rendering its subjects nude with extremely muscular anatomies. His rendition of a beardless Christ was unusual for the time, as was the use of figures from pagan mythology. Vasari reports that the Pope's Master of Ceremonies, Biagio da Cesena, called it a disgrace "that in so sacred a place there should have been depicted all those nude figures, exposing themselves so shamefully." Michelangelo, angry at the remark, is said to have painted Cesena's face onto Minos, judge of the underworld, with donkey's ears. Cesena complained to the Pope at being so ridiculed, but the Pope is said to have jokingly remarked that his jurisdiction did not extend to Hell.

materials - Fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City

The Deposition

This piece is not only sculpturally complex and indicative of Michelangelo's genius, but it carries layers of meaning and has sparked multiple interpretations. In it, we see Christ the moment after the Deposition, or being taken down from the cross of his crucifixion. He is falling into the arms of his mother, the Virgin Mary, and Mary Magdalene, whose presence in a work of such importance was highly unusual. Behind the trio is a hooded figure, which is said to be either Joseph of Arimathea or Nicodemus, both of whom were in attendance of the entombment of Christ, which would follow this event. Joseph would end up giving his tomb for Christ and Nicodemus would speak with Christ about the possibility of obtaining eternal life. Because Christ is seen falling into the arms of his mother, this piece is also often referred to as a pieta.

The multiple themes alluded to in this one piece: The Deposition, The Pieta, and The Entombment are further emphasized by the way Michelangelo carved it. Not only is it life like and intense with realism, it was also sculpted so that a person could walk around to observe and absorb each of the three narratives from different perspectives. The remarkable three-dimensionality allows the group to interact within each of the work's meanings.

The work is also a perfect example of Michelangelo's temperament and perfectionism. The process of making it was arduous. Vasari relates that the artist complained about the quality of the marble. Some suggest he had a problem with the way Christ's left leg originally draped over Nicodemus, worrying that some might interpret it in a sexual way, causing him to remove it. Perhaps Michelangelo was so particular with the piece because he was intending it for his own future tomb.

In 1555, Michelangelo attempted to destroy the piece causing further speculation about its meaning. There is a suggestion that the attempted destruction of the piece was because Nicodemus, by reference to his conversation with Christ about the need to be born again to find everlasting life, is associated with Martin Luther's Reformation. Michelangelo was known to be a secret sympathizer, which was dangerous even for someone as influential as he was. Perhaps a coincidence, but his Lutheran sympathies are given as one of the reasons why Pope Paul IV cancelled Michelangelo's pension in 1555. One of Michelangelo's biographers Giorgio Vasari also mentions that the face of Nicodemus is a self-portrait of Michelangelo, which may allude to his crisis of faith.

Although Michelangelo worked on this sculpture over a number of years he was unable to complete it and gave the unfinished piece to Francesco Bandini, a wealthy merchant, who commissioned Tiberio Calcagni, a friend of Michelangelo's, to finish it and repair the damage (all except for replacing Christ's left leg).

Marble - Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence

Pietà Rondanini

Pietà Rondanini is the last sculpture Michelangelo worked on in the weeks leading up to his death, finalizing a story that weaved through his many Pietas and now reflective of the artist's reckoning with his own mortality. The depiction of Christ has changed from his earlier St. Peter's Pieta in which Christ appeared asleep, through to his Pemendapan, where Christ's body was more lifeless, to now, where Christ is shown in the utter pain and suffering of death. His mother Mary is standing in this piece, an unusual rendition, as she struggles to hold up the body of her son while immersed in grief.

What's interesting about this work is that Michelangelo abandoned his usual perfection at carving the body even though he worked on it intermittently for over 12 years. It was a departure that so late in his prolific career signified the enduring genius of an artist whose confidence would allow him to try new things even when his fame would have allowed him to easily rest upon his laurels. The detached arm, the subtle sketched features of the face, and the way the figures almost blend into each other provide a more abstracted quality than was his norm, and all precursors of a minimalism that was yet to come in sculpture. The renowned sculptor Henry Moore later said of this piece, "This is the kind of quality you get in the work of old men who are really great. They can simplify, they can leave out. This Pietà is by someone who knows the whole thing so well he can use a chisel like someone else would use a pen."

This sculpture's importance was ignored for centuries, including its disappearance from public discourse until it was found in the possession of Marchese Rondanini in 1807. It has since excited many modern artists. The Italian artist Massimo Lippi is quoted as saying that modern and contemporary art began with this Pietà, and the South African painter, Marlene Dumas, based her Homage to Michelangelo (2012) on this work.


Tonton videonya: Michelangelo (Mungkin 2022).