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EDMUND WINSTON PETUS, CSA - Sejarah

EDMUND WINSTON PETUS, CSA - Sejarah


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PETUA WINSTON EDMUND UMUM, CSA
STATISTIK VITAL
DIBUAT: 1821 di Limestone County, AL
HILANG: 1907 di Hot Springs, NC.
KEMPEN: Port Gibson, Vicksburg, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Semua Kempen 1864 Tentera Darat Tennessee, Nashville, Kinston, Bentonville.
PERINGKAT TINGGI TERCAPAI: Brigadier Jeneral
BIOGRAFI
Edmund Winston Pettus dilahirkan di Limestone County, Alabama, pada 6 Julai 1821. Dia memperoleh pendidikan dasar di sekolah umum tempatan, kemudian belajar di Clinton College di Tennessee. Dia belajar undang-undang di Tuscumbia, Alabama, dan dimasukkan ke bar pada tahun 1842. Setelah mendirikan latihan di Gainesville, dia terpilih menjadi pengacara untuk Pengadilan Sirkuit ke-7. Pettus berkhidmat dalam Perang Mexico, kemudian meninggalkan tentera dan pergi ke California, kembali ke Alabama dua tahun kemudian. Semasa krisis pemisahan, dia dilantik sebagai pesuruhjaya Mississippi, sementara saudaranya John J. Pettus adalah gabenor negara itu, untuk membincangkan rancangan pemisahan negara itu. Dia bergabung dengan tentera Gabungan, dan mengambil bahagian dalam pertahanan Fort Gibson. Ditangkap ketika garnisun jatuh, dia melarikan diri sebelum dia dapat ditukarkan. Setelah bertempur di Siege of Vicksburg, dia kembali ditangkap, tetapi segera bertukar. Dia dinaikkan pangkat menjadi brigadir jeneral pada 18 September 1863, setelah bertugas di Lookout Mountain dan Missionary Ridge. Sebagai sebahagian daripada Tentera Tennessee, dia berjuang dalam semua kempennya hingga tahun 1864, termasuk pertempuran di Nashville, Kingston dan Bentonville. Terluka di Bentonville, dia menyerah di Stesen Durham, dan pulang ke rumah. Pettus menetap di Selma, Alabama, dan mendirikan praktik hukumnya di sana. Mewakili Alabama di konvensyen Demokratik nasional dari 1876 hingga 1896, dia terpilih dua kali ke Senat AS, pada tahun 1896 dan 1902. Pettus meninggal pada 27 Julai 1907, di Hot Springs, North Carolina .; semasa menjalani penggal kedua senatornya.

EDMUND WINSTON PETUS, CSA - Sejarah

Saya tidak dapat menjamin maklumat ini, tetapi inilah Perintah Pertempuran dalam talian yang saya dapati untuk Gabungan di Gereja Ezra.

Bahagian Hindman- Mejar Jeneral Thomas Carmichael Hindman
Pengiring
Syarikat "B", 3rd Alabama Cavalry --- Kapten F. J. Billingslea

Deas's Brigade - Brigadier General Zachary Cantey Deas
19 Rejimen Infantri Alabama
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-22
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-25
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-39
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-50
Pemangkas Batalion Alabama ke-17

Manigault's Brigade - Brigadier General Arthur Middleton Manigualt
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-24
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-28 --- Leftenan Kolonel W. L. Butler
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-34
Rejimen Infantri Carolina Selatan ke-10
Rejimen Infantri Carolina Selatan ke-19

Tucker's Brigade - Brigadier General William Femister Tucker
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-7
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-9
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-10
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-41
Pemotretan Batalion ke-9 Mississippi

Walthall's Brigade - Brigadier Jeneral Edward Cary Walthall
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-24
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-27
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-29
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-30
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-34

Bahagian Stevenson - Mejar Jeneral Carter Littlepage Stevenson
Pengiring - Kapten T. B. Wilson

Brown's Brigade - Brigadier Jeneral John Calvin Brown
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-3
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-18
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-26
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-32
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-45 --- Kolonel A. Searcy
Batalion Infantri Tennessee ke-23 --- Kolonel A. Searcy

Briged Cummings - Brigadier Jeneral Alfred Cumming
Rejimen Infantri Georgia ke-34
Rejimen Infantri Georgia ke-36 --- Kolonel C. E. Broyles
Rejimen Infantri Georgia ke-39
Rejimen Infantri Georgia ke-56
Pasukan Negeri Georgia ke-2

Reynold's Brigade - Brigadier General Alexander Welch Reynolds
Rejimen Infantri North Carolina ke-58
Rejimen Infantri North Carolina ke-60
Rejimen Infantri Virginia ke-54
Rejimen Infantri Virginia ke-63 --- Kapten C. H. Lynch

Brigade Pettus - Brigadier Jeneral Edmund Winston Pettus
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-20
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-23 --- Leftenan Kolonel J. B. Bibb
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-30
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-31
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-46

Bahagian Stewart - Mejar Jeneral Henry DeLamar Clayton
Pengiring
Syarikat "C", 1st Georgia Cavalry --- Kapten George T. Watts

Briged Stovall - Brigadier Jeneral Marcellus Augustus Stovall
Rejimen Infantri Georgia ke-40
Rejimen Infantri Georgia ke-41
Rejimen Infantri Georgia ke-42
Rejimen Infantri Georgia ke-43
Pasukan Negeri Georgia ke-1

Briged Clayton - Brigadier Jeneral James Thadeus Holtzclaw
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-18
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-32
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-58
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-36
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-38

Baker Brigade - Brigadier General Alpheus Baker
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-37
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-40 --- Kolonel John H. Higley
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-42
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-54 --- Leftenan Kolonel J. A. Minter

Briged Gibson - Brigdier Jeneral Randall Lee Gibson
Rejimen Infantri Louisiana ke-1
Rejimen Infantri Louisiana ke-4 --- Kolonel S. E. Hunter
Rejimen Infantri Louisiana ke-13 --- Leftenan Kolonel F. L. Campbell
Rejimen Infantri Louisiana ke-16
Rejimen Infantri Louisiana ke-25
Rejimen Infantri Louisiana ke-19
Rejimen Infantri Louisiana ke-20
Rejimen Infantri Louisiana ke-30
Batalion ke-14, Pemecah Tembak Louisiana --- Mejar J. E. Austin

Artileri - Kolonel Robert F. Beckman
Batalion Courtney - Mejar A. R. Courtney
Bateri Artileri Alabama
Bateri Artileri Gabungan --- Kapten S. H. Dent
Bateri Artileri Texas
Batalion Eldridge - Mejar J. W. Eldridge
Bateri Artileri Alabama
Louisiana Artillery Battery --- Kapten Charles E. Fenner
Bateri Artileri Mississippi
Batalion Johnston - Mejar J. W. Johnston
Bateri Artileri Georgia
Bateri Artileri Georgia --- Kapten J. B. Rowan
Tennessee Artillery Battery --- Kapten L. G. Marshall
Batalion Williams / Kolb
Bateri Artileri Alabama
Bateri Artileri Mississippi --- Kapten Putnam Darden
Bateri Artileri Virginia

CORPS STEWART
PETER STEWART ALEXANDER UMUM LIEUTENANT
Pengiring
Kuda Cahaya Orleans --- Kapten L. Greenleaf

Bahagian Loring - Mejar Jeneral William Wing Loring
Pengiring
Syarikat "B", 7th Tennessee Cavalry --- Kapten J. P. Russell

Featherston Brigade - Brigadier Jeneral Winfield Scott Featherston
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-1 --- Mejar M. S. Alcorn
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-3
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-22
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-31
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-33
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-40
Penembak Batalion Mississippi ke-1 --- Mejar G. M. Stigler

Briged Adam - Brigadier Jeneral John Adams
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-6 --- Kolonel Robert Lowry
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-14 --- Leftenan Kolonel W. L. Doss
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-15
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-20 --- Kolonel William N. Brown
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-23
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-43 --- Kolonel Richard Harrison

Briged Scott - Brigadier Jeneral Thomas Moore Scott
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-27
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-35 --- Kolonel S. S. Ives
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-49
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-55
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-57
Rejimen Infantri Louisiana ke-12

Bahagian Perancis - Brigadier Jeneral Samuel Gibbs Perancis

Ector's Brigade - Brigadier General Matthew Duncan Ector
Rejimen Infantri North Carolina ke-29 --- Leftenan Kolonel B. S. Proffitt
Rejimen Infantri North Carolina ke-39 --- Kolonel D. Coleman
Rejimen Infantri Texas ke-9
Rejimen Berkuda Texas Ke-10 --- Kolonel C. R. Earp
Rejimen Kuda Berkuda Texas ke-14 --- Kolonel J. L. Camp
Rejimen Berkuda Texas Ke-32 --- Kolonel J. A. Andrews
Batalion Kavaleri Jaques --- Mejar J. Jaques

Briged Cockrell - Brigadier Jeneral Francis Marion Cockrell
Pasukan Berkuda Missouri yang Hilang
Pasukan Berkuda Missouri ke-3 --- *
Rejimen Infantri Missouri ke-1
Rejimen Infantri Missouri ke-4 --- #
Rejimen Infantri Missouri ke-2 --- Kolonel P. C. Flournoy
Rejimen Infantri Missouri ke-6 --- $
Rejimen Infantri Missouri ke-3 --- Kolonel James McCown
Rejimen Infantri Missouri Ke-5 --- @
* Disatukan dengan 1st Missouri Dismounted Cavalry
# Disatukan dengan Infantri Missouri ke-1
$ Disatukan dengan Infantri Missouri ke-2
@ Disatukan dengan Missouri Infantri ke-3

Briged Sear - Brigadier Jeneral Claudius Winstar Sears
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-4 --- Kolonel T. N. Adaire
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-35
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-36 --- Kolonel W. W. Witherspoon
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-39
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-46 --- Kolonel W. H. Clark
Batalion Infantri Mississippi ke-7

Bahagian Walthall - Brigadier Jeneral Edward Cary Walthall

Briged Quarles - Brigadier Jeneral William Andrew Quarles
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-1 --- Kolonel S. L. Knox
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-42
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-46
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-55 --- *
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-48
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-49
Rejimen Infantri Tennessee ke-52
* Disatukan dengan Tennessee Infantry ke-46

Reynold's Brigade - Brigadier Jeneral Daniel Harris Reynolds
Senapang Gunung Arkansas ke-1 (Dihapuskan)
Senapang Arkansas ke-2 (Dihapuskan)
Rejimen Infanteri Arkansas ke-4
Rejimen Infantri Arkansas ke-9
Rejimen Infanteri Arkansas ke-25

Briged Gholson - Kolonel John McQuirk
(Tempelkan pada 28 Julai 1864)
Cantey's Brigade - Kolonel Edward Asbury O'Neal
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-17
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-26 --- Mejar D. F. Bryan
Rejimen Infantri Alabama ke-29
Rejimen Infantri Mississippi ke-27

Artileri - Leftenan Kolonel S. C. Williams
Batalion Waddell
Bateri Artileri Alabama --- Kapten W. D. Emery
Bateri Artileri Alabama
Bateri Artileri Missouri
Batalion Myrick - Mejar J. D. Myrick
Bateri Artileri Louisiana
Bateri Artileri Mississippi
Bateri Artileri Tennessee
Batalion Storrs - Mejar George S. Storrs
Bateri Artileri Alabama
Bateri Artileri Mississippi
Bateri Artileri Missouri
Batalion Preston / Truehart - Mejar W. C. Preston
Mejar D. Truehart
Bateri Artileri Alabama --- Leftenan C. W. Lovelace
Bateri Artileri Alabama
Bateri Artileri Mississippi --- Kapten J. H. Yates

Bahagian Kavaleri - Brigadier Jeneral William Hicks Jackson

Armstrong's Briged - Brigadier Jeneral Frank Crawford Armstrong
Rejimen Berkuda Mississippi ke-1 --- Kolonel R. A. Pinson
Rejimen Berkuda Mississippi ke-2 --- Mejar J. J. Perry
Rejimen Berkuda Mississippi ke-28
Pasukan Berkuda Ballentine's Mississippi
Syarikat "A" 1st Confederate Cavalry --- Kapten James Ruffin

Ross's Brigade - Brigadier General Lawrence Syullivan Ross
1st Texas Legion --- Kolonel E. R. Hawkins
Rejimen Berkuda Texas ke-3 --- Leftenan Kolonel J. S. Boggess
Rejimen Berkuda Texas ke-6 --- Leftenan Kolonel Peter F. Ross
Rejimen Berkuda Texas ke-9

Briged Ferguson - Brigadier Jeneral Samuel Wragg Ferguson
Rejimen Berkuda Alabama ke-2 --- Kolonel John N. Carpenter
Rejimen Berkuda Alabama ke-56
Rejimen Berkuda Mississippi ke-9 --- Kolonel H. H. Miller
Rejimen Berkuda Mississippi ke-11 --- Kolonel R. O. Perrin
Batalion Mississippi Cavalry ke-12

Artileri - Kapten John Waties
Bateri Artileri Georgia
Bateri Artileri Missouri --- Kapten Houston King
Bateri Artileri Carolina Selatan --- Leftenan R. B. Waddell

Bahagian 1, Militia Negeri Georgia - Jeneral Jeneral Gustavus Woodson Smith

Briged Pertama - Brigadier Jeneral R. W. Carswell
Pasukan Rejimen Negeri 1 --- Kolonel E. H. Pottle
Pasukan Rejimen Ke-2 --- Kolonel C. D. Anderson
Pasukan Rejimen Ke-5 --- Kolonel S. S. Stanford
Pasukan Batalion Ke-1 --- Leftenan Kolonel H. K. McCay

Briged ke-2 - Brigadier Jeneral P. J. Phillips
Pasukan Rejimen Ke-3 --- Kolonel Q. M. Hill
Pasukan Rejimen Ke-4 --- Kolonel R. McMillan
Pasukan Rejimen Ke-6 --- Kolonel J. W. Burney
Batalion Artileri Negeri --- Kolonel C. W. Stiles


Kehidupan Awal & Kerjaya

Edmund Pettus dilahirkan pada tahun 1821 di Limestone County, Alabama. Dia adalah anak bongsu dari sembilan anak John Pettus dan Alice Taylor Winston, saudara John J. Pettus, dan sepupu Jefferson Davis yang jauh. Dia mendapat pendidikan di sekolah awam tempatan dan kemudian menamatkan pengajian di Clinton College yang terletak di Smith County, Tennessee.

Pettus kemudian belajar undang-undang di Tuscumbia, Alabama, di bawah William Cooper dan dimasukkan ke persatuan bar negara pada tahun 1842. Tidak lama kemudian dia menetap di Gainesville dan mula berlatih sebagai peguam. Pada 27 Jun 1844, Pettus mengahwini Mary L. Chapman, dengan siapa dia mempunyai tiga anak lelaki, dua daripadanya meninggal pada masa bayi, dan dua anak perempuan. Pada tahun itu juga dia dipilih sebagai peguam untuk Litar Kehakiman ketujuh Alabama.


Slitherine

Brig. Jeneral Gideon J. Pillow, CSA (b. 1806, w. 1878) Seorang jeneral Perang Mexico, Gideon Johnson Pillow memegang pangkat jeneral utama dengan dua tentera yang berbeza, tetapi hanya seorang brigadier jeneral dalam perkhidmatan Gabungan. Pillow dilahirkan di Williamson County, Tenn., 8 Jun 1806. Lulusan University of Nashville pada tahun 1827, Pillow adalah rakan kongsi undang-undang di Columbia, Tenn., Dengan James Knox Polk, kemudian presiden Amerika Syarikat. Polk melantik Pillow sebagai jeneral sukarelawan sukarela pada tahun 1846 untuk Perang Mexico. Bekas rakan kongsi undang-undangnya membantunya memperoleh pangkat jeneral utama juga. Pillow tidak takut untuk bertengkar dan dua kali cedera dalam kempen Mexico City. Dia bukan kegemaran Jeneral Winfield Scott, tetapi dibela oleh Polk. Pillow tidak berjaya mencalonkan wakil presiden pada tahun 1852 dan 1856. Ketika Tennessee melepaskan diri pada tahun 1861, Pillow dinobatkan sebagai jeneral utama pasukan negara. Dia ditugaskan sebagai brigadier jeneral di Sementara Angkatan Tentera Konfederasi 9 Julai 1861. Tindakan pertama terjadi pada Pertempuran Belmont. Pillow menjadi panglima kedua di Benteng Donelson di bawah Jeneral John B. Floyd ketika pasukan Persekutuan mengepung kubu tersebut. Floyd menyerahkan perintah kepada Pillow, yang pada gilirannya meninggalkan Jeneral Simon B. Buckner yang bertanggungjawab. Floyd dan Pillow kemudian melarikan diri sebelum menyerah. Itulah akhir arahan Pillow mengenai perkara penting. Dia ditugaskan ke biro sukarela dan wajib militer di Tennessee dan menjadi jeneral tahanan komersil setelah Jeneral J.H. Winder mati. Selepas perang, Pillow bangkrut, tetapi kembali menjalankan praktik undang-undang di Memphis dengan mantan Gabenor Isham G. Harris sebagai pasangannya. Bantal mati berhampiran Helena, Ark., 8 Oktober 1878.

Brig. Jeneral Albert Pike, CSA (tahun 1809, wafat 1891) Apa yang dilakukan oleh Whig kelahiran Boston sebagai brigadier jeneral Gabungan yang bertanggungjawab terhadap tentera India di Arkansas? Itu hanyalah sebahagian daripada kehidupan Albert Pike yang kompleks. Dilahirkan di Boston, 29 Disember 1809, Pike mempunyai banyak pencapaian dalam hidupnya selain daripada perkhidmatannya sebagai jeneral brigadi Gabungan. Pike dikenang sebagai seorang guru, penyair, pengarang, pengacara, pengarang dan pengarang Freemason yang cemerlang semasa hidupnya. Orang boleh mengatakan bahawa dia adalah pemakan produktif dan beratnya lebih dari 300 paun. Dari tahun 1824-31, Pike mengajar di sekolah-sekolah New England. Dia meninggalkan timur laut pada tahun 1831, sampai di Independece, Mo. Di sana, dia bergabung dengan sekumpulan pemburu dan pedagang menuju ke Santa Fe, N.M. Dia menetap di Arkansas pada tahun 1833 dan mengajar sekolah di Pope County. Dia mengajar, adalah penerbit surat khabar, penyair, pengacara dan penanam sebelum pecahnya Perang Saudara. Whig menentang pemisahan, dia akhirnya memberikan sokongannya kepada negara baru setelah Arkansas meninggalkan Union. Dia menggunakan hubungannya dengan negara-negara India (dia telah memenangkan satu kes ketika mewakili Suku Creek melawan Kerajaan Persekutuan) untuk berusaha mendapatkan sokongan mereka untuk kepentingan Gabungan. Pike ditugaskan sebagai brigadir jeneral 15 Ogos 1861, dan berjanji kepada Jeneral Earl Van Dorn bahawa dia akan memiliki 7.000 pahlawan ganas yang siap bertindak. Dia memimpin tiga regimen India ke Arkansas sekitar sepertiga dari kekuatan yang dijanjikan. Di Battle of Elkhorn Tavern, tentera India Pike mengarahkan bateri Persekutuan di bawah Kolonel Peter Osterhaus. Namun, orang India berhenti untuk merayakannya dan belum melakukan serangan balas. Ia didakwa bahawa orang India Pike telah mengumpulkan sejumlah orang Federals yang mati dan cedera. Van Dorn tidak mengendahkan perintah Pike dalam laporannya. Pike mempertahankan pasukannya, menyatakan mereka direkrut hanya untuk mempertahankan wilayah mereka. Komander Pike seterusnya, Jeneral Thomas Hindman, adalah yang seterusnya untuk berdebat dengan Pike mengenai pengendalian wang dan bahan. Hindman memerintahkan penangkapan Pike, tetapi Pike menghilang ke Arkansas. Jeneral Douglas Cooper mengatakan Pike adalah "tidak siuman atau tidak benar ke Selatan." Pike mengundurkan jawatannya pada 12 Julai 1862 dan peletakan jawatan itu diterima pada 5 November 1862. Pike tetap dalam separuh pensiun untuk perang yang selebihnya. Selepas perang, Pike harus menghadapi tuntutan Persekutuan, tetapi dapat memperoleh kembali hak sivilnya. Dia adalah seorang pengacara di Memphis sebelum menerima jawatan sebagai jurucakap nasional Freemasonry. Dia meninggal di rumah Kuil Ritus Skotlandia di Washington, D.C. 2 April 1891.

Melangkau Pickett, seperti yang saya lihat dia telah selesai. Saya mendapat tahu bahawa Pickett menjual insurans selepas perang. Adakah anda akan membeli insurans dari Pickett?

Brig. Jeneral Edmund W. Pettus, CSA (b. 1821, w. 1907) Jeneral brigadier Gabungan terakhir yang bertugas di Senat AS, Edmund Winston Pettus melayani tahun-tahun terakhir hidupnya di Kongres, dari tahun 1896 hingga kematiannya di Hot Springs, NC, 27 Julai 1907. Pettus dilahirkan di Limestone County, Ala. , 6 Julai 1821. Dia menghadiri Clinton College di Tennessee dan membaca undang-undang di Tuscumbia, Ala. Pettus dimasukkan ke bar pada tahun 1842, menetap di Gainesville, Ala. Dia adalah peguam daerahnya dan kemudian bertugas sebagai hakim Ketujuh Litar. Dia berpindah ke Cahaba, Ala, pada tahun 1858. Pada tahun 1861, dia menjadi pesuruhjaya ke Mississippi, di mana saudaranya, John J. Pettus, adalah gabenor. Membantu pengambilan Alabama ke-20, dia terpilih sebagai ketua unit dan kemudian dinobatkan menjadi letnan kolonel pada Oktober 1861. Dia bertempur dengan unit itu melalui pertempuran di Teater Barat dan ditangkap dengan unitnya dengan penyerahan Vicksburg . Setelah ditukar, dia dinaikkan pangkat menjadi kolonel Alabama ke-20 setelah kenaikan pangkat, dan kemudian kematian, Jeneral Isham Gerrott. Pettus dinaikkan pangkat menjadi brigadier jeneral 18 September 1863. Dia bertempur di setiap pertunangan utama dari Chattanooga ke Bentonville, termasuk Hood's Invasion of Tennessee. Terluka dalam Kempen Carolinas di Bentonville, Pettus berada di tempat penyerahan Jenderal Joseph Johnston sebelum kembali tinggal di Selma, Ala. Dia meneruskan praktik undang-undangnya dan aktif dalam urusan Demokratik negara. Dia akhirnya menawarkan diri untuk berkhidmat di pejabat awam pada tahun 1896.

Catatan mengenai Pettus - Unitnya adalah Alabama ke-20. Sumber asli bertentangan sama ada unit ini berasal dari Alabama atau Arkansas. Penyelidikan tambahan menunjukkan bahawa ia adalah unit Alabama. Nama Pettus terpasang di sebuah jambatan di Selma, yang merupakan lokasi konflik antara demonstran Hak Sivil yang diketuai oleh Martin Luther King, Jr., dan penguatkuasaan undang-undang pada 7 Mac 1965. Anehnya, itu muncul 20 tahun keesokan harinya konflik terkenal di jambatan. 7 Mac 1945 adalah tarikh pasukan Bahagian Perisai Kesembilan (Infanteri Perisai ke-27) menawan Jambatan Ludendorff di Remagen.

Ngomong-ngomong, saya mesti memberi anda senarai lelaki mana yang telah ditugaskan, kerana anda mula naik ke tahap dalam abjad di mana anda tidak boleh yakin bahawa seorang lelaki masih ada untuk bio. Harap ingatkan saya jika saya tidak menghantar maklumat ini dalam beberapa hari mendatang.

1) Briged Texas Polignac, oleh Alwyn Barr, 1998, tetapi panjangnya hanya 68 halaman.

2) Lafayette dari Selatan, Putera Camille de Polignac dan Perang Saudara Amerika, oleh Jeff Kinard, 2001, 234 halaman.

Kedua-duanya diterbitkan oleh Texas A&M University Press sebagai sebahagian daripada Siri Sejarah Ketenteraan mereka, dan 1) adalah # 60 dan 2) adalah # 70 dari siri itu.

Sedikit humor mengenai Polignac, orang Texas atau Texiansnya yang kasar menyebutnya sebagai 'General Polecat', dan Polignac mengetahuinya, dan dalam pertarungan kecil di Vidalia, LA dia berteriak & "Ikuti saya! Ikut saya! Anda memanggil saya 'Polecat'. Saya akan menunjukkan kepada anda sama ada saya 'Polecat' atau 'Polignac', kerana tiga Rejimennya dari Texans maju dalam garis berganda dengan bendera pertempuran mereka tersentak. halaman 36 buku 1).

& lt Mesej diedit oleh christof139 -- 3/20/2007 4:00:41 PAGI & gt


Jeneral Jeneral Camille Armand Jules Marie, Putera de Polignac (b. 1832, w. 1913). Seseorang dapat menulis keseluruhan buku mengenai pengembaraan Polignac (yang kebanyakannya terdiri dari namanya yang panjang). Polignac, yang akan menjadi warganegara asing peringkat tertinggi untuk berkhidmat di kedua sisi Perang Saudara, dilahirkan di Miltemont, Seine-et-Oise, Perancis, pada 16 Februari 1832. Dia adalah putera presiden majlis menteri Raja Charles X dan seorang ibu Inggeris. Dia mendapat pendidikan di College of Stanislaus di Paris dan bergabung dengan Rejimen Chasseurs ke-3 pada tahun 1853 sebagai swasta setelah gagal dalam ujian masuk untuk Ecole Polytechnique, akademi tentera Perancis. Polignac berkhidmat dengan Hussars ke-4 sebagai letnan semasa Perang Crimea, dan kemudian dipindahkan ke Chasseurs ke-4 sebelum diberhentikan pada tahun 1859. Pada permulaan Perang Saudara, Polignac berada di Amerika Tengah. Setelah berjumpa dengan P.G.T. Beauregard dan anggota kabinet Gabungan masa depan Yehuda P. Benjamin semasa lawatan ke New York City sebelum perang, dia segera menawarkan khidmatnya kepada Konfederasi dan ditugaskan sebagai letnan kolonel pada 16 Julai 1861. Pada tahun 1862, dia bertugas sebagai pegawai Gens. Beauregard dan kemudian Braxton Bragg, melihat aksi di Shiloh dan Corinth dan bergabung dengan Bragg untuk pencerobohan Kentucky pada tahun 1862. Walaupun mempunyai prestasi yang baik di Kentucky, terutama ketika berkhidmat di bawah Brig. Bahagian jeneral Patrick Cleburne di Battle of Richmond pada 29 Ogos, Polignac gagal mendapatkan perintah lapangan yang diinginkannya sehingga dia secara peribadi melobi Pres. Jefferson Davis dan Jeneral Samuel Cooper, Adjutant Jeneral. Polignac dinaikkan pangkat menjadi brigadier jeneral 10 Januari 1863, dan pada akhir Mei telah tiba di teater trans-Mississippi, di mana sebahagian besar perkhidmatannya datang dari Jeneral Richard Taylor Daerah Louisiana Barat. Memerintah Briged Texas ke-2, yang dipanggil oleh Jeneral Kirby Smith sebagai "massa yang tidak berdisiplin," Polignac segera memerintah orang-orang itu, yang menggelarnya sebagai "Polecat Umum" daripada berusaha menyebut namanya dengan betul, dan menjadikan mereka berkesan kekuatan pertempuran. Polecat dan orang Texas-nya bertempur dengan hebat semasa kempen Sungai Merah, terutama dalam pertempuran Mansfield dan Pleasant Hill. Pada Pertempuran Mansfield, yang berlangsung di De Soto Parish, Louisiana, pada 8 April 1864 dan merupakan pertunangan utama pertama dalam Kampanye Sungai Merah Union, Polignac mendapat kemasyhuran besar: ketika Brig. Jeneral Alfred Mouton, yang memerintah Bahagian Infanteri ke-2 Taylor, terbunuh ketika dia mengetuai brigade pengisiannya, Polignac memegang jawatan sebagai ketua bahagian, yang mengalami 40% korban ketika melumpuhkan bahagian Union dan menangkap dua bateri artileri. Dua bulan kemudian, pada 13 Jun, dia menerima kenaikan pangkat menjadi jeneral jeneral, sejak ia memainkan peranan penting di Mansfield. Untuk memperingati detik terbaik Polignac, setiap keturunan lelaki sulung telah diberi nama Mansfield. Menjelang akhir perang, pemerintah Gabungan menghantar Polignac ke Perancis untuk berusaha meminta campur tangan dari pemerintah Napoleon III. Dia menjalankan sekatan pada 17 Mac 1865, dan tiba di Sepanyol sejurus sebelum perang berakhir. Selepas perang, dia belajar matematik dan ekonomi politik, tetapi keluar dari persaraan tentera untuk memimpin Bahagian 1 Perancis semasa Perang Franco-Prusia. Dianugerahkan Legion of Honor, Polignac kembali ke pelajaran matematik dan mengembangkan reputasi di lapangan sebelum kematiannya di Paris pada 15 November 1913. Polignac, yang dikebumikan di Frankfurt, adalah jeneral terakhir Gabungan yang mati. (Bio oleh Bill Battle)

Kepimpinan: 6
Taktikal: 5
Inisiatif: 3
Arahan: 5
Berkuda:

Mengajar: Blasted (15), Teratur (24), Perancis

The & quotorphans & quot yang terperangkap di sebelah barat Sungai Mississippi akhirnya disusun menjadi 8 syarikat dan digabungkan dengan Batalion Texas yang bebas untuk menjadi Pasukan Berkuda ke-17. Unit ini tidak dapat dipersenjatai sehingga Talor mengalahkan percubaan pertama Nathaniel Banks untuk menyerang Texas pada tahun 1863. Senjata yang cukup banyak ditangkap dari & quotCommisary & quots Banks 'Army untuk melengkapkan rejimen. Kolonel pertama adalah James R. Taylor yang sebelumnya merupakan komandan syarikat dalam regimen Texas Cavalry ke-17 (Dismounted) dan dengan itu gelaran unit. Pertempuran Mansfield pada bulan April 1864 dengan berkesan menghancurkan rejimen sebagai pasukan pertempuran. Hanya 200 orang yang tersisa dalam usaha mengejar Tentera Bank setelah pertempuran di Mansfield (juga disebut Sabine Crossing). Kolonel Taylor terbunuh setelah menggantikan Polignac untuk memerintah brigade dan Lt Kol Nobles terbunuh memimpin rejimen dalam menangkap bateri artileri Chicago Mercantile. Yang terselamat sekali lagi disatukan ke dalam kumpulan berukuran syarikat dan dilampirkan ke Walker Texas Division untuk sepanjang perang.

& lt Mesej diedit oleh Keputihan -- 26/3/2007 5:22:08 PTG & gt

Dan sebagai pembangun permainan, saya bersyukur kerana kami tidak berusaha membuat permainan Perang Saudara di peringkat syarikat. Sheesh!

Pembetulan pertama adalah untuk gaya kerana terdapat dua & quotserve & quot berdekatan satu sama lain.

Saya tertanya-tanya apakah rujukan kepada 7000 pahlawan ferocious adalah petikan langsung dari suatu tempat jika ya, kita harus memasukkannya ke dalam tanda petik.

Juga, saya mengeluarkan hukuman Van Dorn mengabaikan perintah Pike dalam laporannya kerana saya tidak dapat mengetahui kepentingannya, dan kerana ia memecah naratifnya.

Brig. Jeneral Albert Pike (b. 1809, wafat 1891). Apa yang dilakukan oleh Whig kelahiran Boston sebagai brigadier jeneral Gabungan yang bertanggungjawab terhadap tentera Asli Amerika di Arkansas? Itu hanyalah sebahagian dari kehidupan kompleks Albert Pike. Dilahirkan di Boston pada 29 Disember 1809, Pike mempunyai banyak prestasi dalam hidupnya selain daripada perkhidmatan ketenteraannya. Dia dikenang sebagai seorang guru, penyair, pengarang, pengacara, pengarang dan pengarang Freemasonry yang cemerlang, dapat dikatakan dia juga pemakan produktif, kerana beratnya lebih dari 300 paun. Dari tahun 1824 hingga 1831, Pike mengajar di sekolah-sekolah New England. Dia meninggalkan timur laut pada tahun 1831, sampai di Independence, Missouri, di mana dia bergabung dengan sekumpulan pemburu dan pedagang menuju ke Santa Fe, New Mexico. Dia menetap di Arkansas pada tahun 1833 dan mula mengajar sekolah di Pope County. Dia juga merupakan penerbit akhbar, penyair, pengacara dan penanam sebelum pecahnya Perang Saudara. Seorang Paus yang menentang pemisahan, Pike akhirnya memberikan sokongannya kepada negara baru setelah Arkansas meninggalkan Kesatuan, dan bertekad untuk menggunakan hubungannya dengan negara-negara India - dia telah memenangi kes ketika mewakili Suku Creek menentang Kerajaan Persekutuan untuk mencuba mendapat sokongan mereka untuk kepentingan Gabungan. Pike ditugaskan sebagai brigadier jeneral pada 15 Ogos 1861. Kerana hubungannya yang baik dengan Five Civilized Tribes, pemerintah Gabungan memintanya untuk merekrut tentera India, dan memberinya arahan Jabatan Wilayah India. Pike berjanji kepada Jeneral Earl Van Dorn, yang telah diperintah Daerah Trans-Mississippi pada bulan September itu, bahawa dia akan mempunyai 7.000 pahlawan ganas yang siap untuk bertindak, tetapi akhirnya memimpin brigade empat rejimen India ke Arkansas yang berjumlah sekitar satu pertiga dari kekuatan yang dijanjikan. Di Battle of Elkhorn Tavern (Pea Ridge) pada 7-8 Mac 1862, pasukan Pike mengarahkan bateri Union di bawah Kolonel Peter Osterhaus. Namun, lelaki itu berhenti untuk meraikannya dan cari peralatan dan bekalan yang terbengkalai, dan oleh itu tidak bersedia untuk serangan balas yang menghalau mereka dari ladang dan malah menghalau sebahagian dari mereka kembali ke Wilayah India dengan serta-merta. Ia kemudian didakwa bahawa lelaki Pike telah menumpaskan sejumlah tentera Union yang mati dan cedera. Pike mempertahankan pasukannya, dengan menyatakan bahawa mereka direkrut hanya untuk mempertahankan wilayah mereka. Panglima Pike berikutnya di teater Trans-Mississippi, Jeneral Thomas Hindman, berdebat dengannya mengenai pengendalian wang dan bahan, dan ketika Hindman memerintahkan penangkapannya, Pike menghilang ke Arkansas, menghindari penangkapan. Jeneral Douglas Cooper, yang pada akhir tahun 1863 akan mengambil alih komando di Wilayah India, menyatakan bahawa Pike adalah tidak siuman atau tidak benar ke Selatan. Pike mengundurkan jawatannya pada 12 Julai 1862 dan peletakan jawatan itu diterima pada 5 November. Pike kekal dalam separuh pensiun untuk sisa perang. Selepas itu, dia harus berurusan dengan tuduhan Persekutuan, tetapi dapat memperoleh kembali hak sivilnya. Pike kembali berlatih undang-undang setelah pindah ke Memphis, sebelum menerima kedudukan sebagai juru bicara Freemasonry nasional. Pike meninggal di rumah Kuil Ritus Skotlandia di Washington, D.C. pada 2 April 1891 dan dikebumikan di Tanah Perkuburan Oak Hill. (Bio oleh Bill Battle)

Kepimpinan: 1
Taktikal: 2
Inisiatif: 1
Arahan: 1
Berkuda:

Tarikh mula: 15
Tarikh kematian: 36

Brig. Bantal Jeneral Gideon Johnson (b. 1806, w. 1878). Seorang jeneral Perang Mexico, Pillow memegang pangkat jeneral utama dengan dua pasukan yang berbeza, tetapi hanya seorang jeneral brigadier dalam perkhidmatan Gabungan. Dia mungkin lebih terkenal, bagaimanapun, kerana keperibadiannya dan kemampuan untuk mengumpulkan musuh peribadi dan politik. Pillow dilahirkan di Williamson County, Tennessee, pada 8 Jun 1806. Lulusan Cumberland College pada tahun 1827 di Nashville, dia adalah rakan kongsi undang-undang di Columbia, Tennessee dengan James K. Polk, yang kemudian menjadi Presiden Amerika Syarikat. Polk, yang pencalonannya sebagai calon Demokrat direkayasa oleh Pillow, melantiknya sebagai jeneral sukarelawan sukarela pada tahun 1846 untuk Perang Mexico, dan bekas rakan undang-undangnya kemudian membantunya mendapatkan pangkat jeneral utama juga. Bantal tidak takut masuk ke dalam pertempuran sengit, dan hasilnya dua kali cedera dalam kempen Mexico City. Walaupun keberaniannya, Bantal tidak disukai oleh dua komandan tentera, Gens. Winfield Scott dan Zachary Taylor, kerana pertengkarannya, tetapi dia dibela oleh Polk. Pada tahun 1849, Pillow berdiri di hadapan dua mahkamah penyiasatan untuk mempertahankan tingkah laku Perang Mexiconya, dan kedua-dua masa itu dibebaskan. Memasuki politik, Bantal tidak berjaya membuat tiket Demokrat untuk naib presiden pada tahun 1852 dan 1856, dan untuk memperoleh kerusi Senat A.S. pada tahun 1857. Ketika Tennessee melepaskan diri pada tahun 1861, Pillow dinobatkan sebagai jenderal besar pasukan negara dan dikendalikan oleh 22 rejimen infanteri, 10 perusahaan artileri dan dua rejimen kavaleri. Dia kemudian ditugaskan sebagai brigadier jeneral di Sementara Angkatan Darat Gabungan pada 9 Julai 1861. Tindakan pertama Pillow datang pada Pertempuran Belmont (Missouri), terhadap Jeneral Ulysses S. Grant, pada 7 November. Pillow berada di peringkat kedua sebagai komando di Fort Donelson, kubu kuat Gabungan di Sungai Cumberland yang sangat penting untuk pertahanan Nashville, di bawah Jeneral John B. Floyd ketika pasukan Grant mengepung kubu. Permusuhan bantal dengan Jeneral Simon B. Buckner, yang memerintah bahagian Gabungan yang lain di sana, sangat mempengaruhi kemampuan mereka untuk melakukan pertahanan yang terkoordinasi, dan merupakan antara faktor yang menyebabkan penangkapan benteng. Realizing that the fort would ultimately be taken, on February 15, 1862 the Confederates attempted to break out, but their effort failed in no small part because Pillow fumbled his initial success by grasping beyond his reach. Bottled up in the fort once more, that night the senior command recognized defeat as inevitable. Instead of surrendering themselves alongside their men, Floyd passed command to Pillow, who in turn left Buckner in charge, and Floyd and Pillow then fled across the river on a skiff, leaving Buckner, an old friend of Grant, to surrender the next morning. (Pillow justified his decision at the time by declaring, according to witnesses, that There were no two persons in the Confederacy whom the Yankees would prefer to capture than himself and General Floyd. Ironically, when told this by Buckner, Grant scornfully stated, I would rather have him in command of you fellows than as a prisoner. ) Pillow spent the rest of the year attempting to justify his actions both in the press and in an endless series of letters to government officials. He did receive a brief brigade command at the Battle of Murfreesboro on December 31, 1862-January 2, 1863, but it was his last major wartime assignment. He was assigned to the volunteer and conscript bureau in Tennessee and became commissary general of prisoners after Gen. J.H. Winder died. Pillow s final field command came in an attempt to harass enemy supply lines, but this effort failed and he returned to his previous duty. After the war, he returned to practice law in Memphis with former Governor Isham G. Harris as his partner, but eventually went bankrupt. Pillow died from yellow fever near Helena, Arkansas on October 8, 1878. (Bio by Bill Battle)

Leadership: 2
Tactical: 1
Initiative: 1
Command: 0
Cavalry:


Edmund Winston Pettus House Site

Edmund Winston Pettus, lawyer, General C.S.A., U.S. Senator, was born Limestone County, Alabama, 1821.
Admitted to bar, 1842.
Moved to Cahaba, 1858.
Major, C.S.A., 1861.
Brigadier General, 1863.
U.S. Senator, 1897-1907.
Resided here from 1866 until death, 1907.
When in Senate, with John T. Morgan, Selma was home of both U.S. Senators from Alabama.

Erected 1972 by Alabama Historical Association.

Topik. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Government & Politics &bull War, US Civil. A significant historical year for this entry is 1821.

Lokasi. 32° 24.375′ N, 87° 1.383′ W. Marker is in Selma, Alabama, in Dallas County. Marker is on Alabama Avenue east of Mabry Street, on the right when traveling east. Sentuh untuk peta. Marker is in this post office area: Selma AL 36701, United States of America. Sentuh untuk arahan.


Biography: Edmund Winston Pettus born July 6, 1821 – photograph

EDMUND WINSTON PETTUS

BIOGRAPHY and GENEALOGY

(1821- 1907)

Limestone, Cahaba, Sumter and Dallas County, Alabama

Edmund Winston Pettus, United States senator from Alabama, was born, July 6, 1821, to John and Alice Taylor (Winston) Pettus.

His father was born in Fluvanna County, Virginia where he was a planter.

John Pettus moved to Davidson County, Tennessee around the turn of the century and in 1807 married Alice Winston, daughter of Anthony Winston, a Revolutionary War Veteran as well as a member of the Virginia convention of 1775. Patrick Henry was a first cousin of Anthony Winston and his son John Anthony Winston, was the first native-born governor of Alabama. Alice was born in Buckingham County, Virginia. General Jackson was a friend and danced at their wedding.

In 1809, John and Alice Pettus moved to Madison county, Alabama then to Limestone County, Alabama where Edmund Pettus was born. John died in 1822 in Limestone County, Alabama but Alice survived him nearly sixty years, dying in 1878. She was living with Edmund in 1870 Selma, Dallas County, Alabama census.

Edmund Winston Pettus

Edmund Winston Pettus was educated in the common schools and at Clinton college, Tennessee and studied law with William Cooper, of Tuscumbia. then the leader of the bar in Northern Alabama. In 1838, he married Mary Lucinda Chapman (b. November 24, 1823, Huntsville, Madison Co., AL – July 15, 1906, Selma, Dallas County, AL)

He was admitted to the bar in 1842 and began practice at Gainesville, Alabama and fought in the Mexican War. In 1844 he was elected solicitor of Sumter county, a post he resigned when, in 1849, he was carried by the gold excitement to California. Returning after spending two years on the Pacific slope, he located at Carrolton, in Pickens county.

WHERE DO I START? Hints and Tips for Beginning Genealogists with On-line resources

In 1852, he took up the duties of solicitor in that county and discharged them for two years. His administration of the office of solicitor had brought him prominently before the people, and in 1855 he was elected judge of the seventh judicial district. He resigned the judgeship in 1858 and removed to Cahaba in Dallas county, where he continued to live until the breaking out of the war between the States.

Edmund Winston Pettus

While the south was negotiating and planning for such co-operation as should render secession a fixed fact, Judge Pettus was dispatched a commissioner from Alabama to the state of Mississippi. As Mississippi was the scene of his first work in behalf of the Confederacy, it furnished the scene of martial exploit with which his name is widely associated. This occurred at the siege of Vicksburg. The enemy had captured a redoubt that was of great strategic importance and Gen. Stephen D. Lee ordered that it be retaken,in spite of the manifestly dangerous character of the attempt. It fell to the lot of Lieut. Col. Pettus that he should get the order to retake the redoubt. He promptly accepted the duty and called for volunteers.

It looked then as if to volunteer meant that the volunteer would go forth to certain death. Men shrank away. There was, however, there a body of men made of as stern stuff as the officer himself. Waul’s Texas legion volunteered in a body. Selecting forty of them, and, together with three Alabamians who had also volunteered, Col. Pettus stormed the redoubt, captured it and carried away 100 prisoners and three of the enemy’s flags.

He entered the army in August 1861 and was made major of the Twentieth Alabama infantry. He was shortly afterward promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was with Gen. Kirby Smith in the Kentucky campaign of 1862. In. the succeeding winter he was assigned to Mississippi, and was in the engagement of Port Gibson and Baker’s Creek and was shut up in Vicksburg. In October 1863, he was appointed brigadier-general and took command of the twentieth, twenty-third, thirtieth, thirty-first and forty-sixth Alabama regiments. His command saw constant service to the end of the war, being at Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, at Atlanta, Nashville and at Bentonville. His only wound was received at Bentonville.

Edmund and Mary Lucinda (Chapman) Pettus had the following children:

  1. Virginia Pettus
  2. Lucy T. Pettus ( b. ca. 1845) married John E. Roberts before 1880
  3. Mary N. Pettus (b. ca. 1853) (b. ca. 1859 d. 1901 in Montgomery, Alabama. In 1880, he married Mary Eleanor Knox (b. ca 1855- July 20, 1942) Francis and Mary had a daughter named Alice

In August 1861, he entered the army as a major of the Twentieth Alabama infantry and made lieutenant-colonel shortly afterward. Edmund became colonel on the death of Col. Garrot He became brigadier-general in September 1863. He achieved distinction as a soldier at Rocky Face Ridge, New Hope Church, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, in the operations about Atlanta and in storming a redoubt at Vicksburg.

After the war he returned to his law practice, steadily declining any political honors for many years, although he might have had years ago any office within the gift of the people of the State. In 1896 he was nominated, without his own solicitation, for the office of United States senator. After his nomination, he received more votes in the legislature than there were Democratic members, and on March 4, 1897, he took his seat as the successor of James L. Pugh

Although new to the business of a legislator in the Congress of the United States his long experience in the law, his active participation in and familiarity with political affairs, and the wide range of his information on public questions soon placed him in the front rank of senators. At the close of his first term ,he was re-elected, his died before his term expired on July 27, 1907, at the age of 86 and is buried in Dallas County, Alabama, at Live Oak Cemetery along with his wife, Mary Lucinda who died July 15, 1906.

The Edmund Winston Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, a civil rights landmark, is named after him.


Sommaire

Jeunesse et formation

Edmund Pettus naît en 1821 dans le comté de Limestone, en Alabama [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] . Il est le fils cadet de John Pettus, et Alice Taylor Winston, le frère de John J. Pettus, et un lointain cousin de Jefferson Davis [ 1 ] . Pettus suit sa scolarité dans les écoles publiques locales, et, plus tard, est diplômé du Clinton College situé dans le comté de Smith, au Tennessee [ 3 ] .

Pettus étudie alors le droit à Tuscumbia, en Alabama, avec William Cooper comme professeur et est inscrit au barreau de l'État en 1842. Peu de temps après, il s'installe à Gainesville et commence à pratiquer en tant qu'avocat.La même année, il est élu procureur de la septième Cour itinérante de l'Alabama [ 4 ] , [ 5 ] .

Avant la guerre de sécession

Au cours de la guerre américano-mexicaine en 1847-49, Pettus, sert comme lieutenant avec les volontaires de l'Alabama, et après les hostilités, il part pour la Californie, où il participe à des actions paramilitaires contre les Yukis et d'autres Indiens d'Amérique [ 1 ] .

En 1853, de retour en Alabama, il sert à nouveau dans la septième cour itinérante en tant que procureur. Il est nommé juge dans cette cour en 1855 jusqu'à sa démission en 1858. Pettus déménage ensuite dans la ville, maintenant disparue, de Cahaba dans le comté de Dallas, en Alabama, où il reprend son travail en tant qu'avocat [ 6 ] .

Guerre de Sécession

En 1861, Pettus, un partisan enthousiaste de la cause confédérée et de l'esclavagisme, est un délégué du parti démocrate à la convention de sécession qui se tient au Mississippi, où son frère John sert comme gouverneur. Pettus contribue à l'organisation du 20° régiment d'infanterie de l'Alabama, et est nommé comme l'un de ses premiers officiers [ 7 ] . Le 9 septembre, il est commandant dans le régiment, et, le 8 octobre, il devient lieutenant-colonel.

Pettus, sert sur le théâtre occidental de la guerre de Sécession. Pendant la campagne de Stones River, il est capturé par les soldats de l'Union le 29 décembre 1862, puis échangé un peu plus tard contre des soldats de l'Union. Pettus est capturé à nouveau le 1 er mai 1863, faisant partie de la garnison se rend après avoir défendu Port Gibson au Mississippi. Toutefois, il parvient à s'échapper et retourner dans ses propres lignes. Pettus est promu colonel le 28 mai, et reçoit le commandement du 20th Alabama Infantry.

Au cours de la campagne de Vicksburg de 1863, Pettus et son régiment font partie de la force de défendant le contrôle confédéré du fleuve Mississippi. Lorsque la garnison capitule le 4 juillet, Pettus, est de nouveau prisonnier jusqu'à son échange le 12 septembre. Six jours plus tard, il est promu brigadier général [ 8 ] et le 3 novembre, il reçoit le commandement d'une brigade dans l'armée du Tennessee. Pettus et sa brigade participent à la campagne de Chattanooga, postés à l'extrême sud de la pente de Missionary Ridge le 24 novembre et se battent le jour suivant [ 9 ] , [ 10 ] , [ 2 ] , [ 11 ] .

Pettus, et son commandement prennent part lors de la campagne d'Atlanta de 1864, combattant lors des batailles de Kennesaw Mountain le 27 juin , d'Atlanta le 22 juillet, et de Jonesborough du 31 août au 1 er septembre . À partir du 17 décembre , il conduit provisoirement une division de l'armée du Tennessee [ 12 ] . Par la suite, lors de la campagne des Carolines de 1865, Pettus est envoyé pour défendre Columbia, en Caroline du Sud, et participe à la bataille de Bentonville du 19 au 21 mars. Pettus est blessé dans ce combat, touché à la jambe droite, peut-être une blessure auto-infligée, selon certaines sources, au cours de la première journée de la bataille. Le 2 mai , il est libéré sur parole à Salisbury, en Caroline du Nord, et, après que la reddition de la Confédération à Appomattox, Pettus est gracié par le gouvernement des États-Unis le 20 octobre.

Après la guerre

Après la guerre, Pettus retourne en Alabama et reprend son activité d'avocat dans son cabinet de Selma. Avec des bénéfices de son cabinet, il achète des terres agricoles.

Pettus sert en tant que président de la délégation de l'État à la convention nationale démocrate pendant plus de deux décennies [ 2 ] .

En 1877, au cours de la dernière année de la reconstruction, Pettus est nommé Grand dragon du Ku Klux Klan de l'Alabama [ 2 ] , le Ku Klux Klan est avec les lois Jim Crow [ 13 ] , [ 14 ] , [ 15 ] , [ 16 ] , [ 17 ] , un des dispositifs des états du Sud pour s'opposer par tous les moyens violents possibles (assassinats, attentats, viols, tortures, enlèvements, incendies d'écoles et d'églises afro-américaines) à l'application des nouveaux droits constitutionnels des Afro-Américains garantis par plusieurs amendements au lendemain de la Guerre de Sécession : le Treizième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis du 6 décembre 1865 abolissant l'esclavage, le Quatorzième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis de 1868, accordant la citoyenneté à toute personne née ou naturalisée aux États-Unis et interdisant toute restriction à ce droit, et le Quinzième amendement de la Constitution des États-Unis, de 1870, garantissant le droit de vote à tous les citoyens des États-Unis.

En 1896, à l'âge de 75 ans, Pettus est candidat pour le Sénat des États-Unis en tant que démocrate, et remporte l'élection en battant le titulaire James L. Pugh. Sa campagne s'appuie sur son succès dans l'organisation et la popularisation du Klan de l'Alabama et son opposition aux droits civiques des Afro-américains, partisan de la ségrégation raciale.

Le 4 mars 1897 , il est élu au Sénat des États-Unis, et est réélu en 1902 [ 10 ] .

Il tient avec John Tyler Morgan un discours commémoratif d'élus du Congrès, le 18 avril 1908 au Sénat puis le 25 avril 1908 à la Chambre des représentants [ 18 ] .

Vie personnelle

Le 27 juin 1844 , Pettus épouse Mary L. Chapman, le couple donne naissance à trois filles, Virginia Pettus, Lucy T. Pettus, Mary N. Pettus, et un fils Francis Leigh Pettus [ 11 ] .

Pettus meurt à Hot Springs, en Caroline du Nord, durant l'été 1907. Il est enterré dans l'Old Live Oak Cemetery de Selma [ 19 ] .


Edmund Pettus

Edmund Winston Pettus (born July 6, 1821 in Limestone County , Alabama , † July 27, 1907 in Hot Springs , North Carolina ) was an American politician ( Democratic Party ). He represented the state of Alabama in the US Senate and was a high-ranking member of the Ku Klux Klan .

Edmund Pettus was the youngest of John Pettus and Alice Taylor Winston's nine children and a distant relative of Southern President Jefferson Davis . John J. Pettus , governor of Mississippi, was an older brother.

After completing his schooling in Alabama and Tennessee , Pettus studied law , passed the bar exam in 1842 and practiced as a lawyer in Gainesville . In 1844 he was elected Solicitor for the Seventh District Court . He served as a lieutenant in the Mexican-American War . From 1855 to 1858 he worked as a judge in the seventh judicial district.

After the outbreak of the Civil War , Pettus joined the Confederate Army . First he was operations staff officer of the 20th Alabama Infantry Regiment with the rank of major , one month later deputy regimental commander and in May 1863 as a colonel its regimental commander. He took part in the second Vicksburg campaign and was eventually promoted to brigadier general.

When the war ended, Pettus returned to Alabama and worked as a lawyer in Selma , Alabama. From 1877 he headed the Ku Klux Klan as the "Grand Dragon of the Realm of Alabama" . As a Democrat, he was a member of the US Senate from March 4, 1897 until his death on July 27, 1907.

In Selma, the Edmund Pettus Bridge was named after him. This gained national fame on March 7, 1965, when a protest march of the civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King led over it and its members were brutally attacked by the local police after crossing the bridge.


Kings of the Confederate Road

Two writers — one black, one white — journey to Selma, Alabama, in search of "Southern heritage." This is their dialogue.

Tad Bartlett is a white man who grew up in Selma, Alabama, then moved to New Orleans later in life. Maurice Carlos Ruffin and L. Kasimu Harris are black men born and raised in New Orleans. Along the way, they all became friends. On May 19, 2017, the three gathered to watch as the Robert E. Lee statue was removed from Lee Circle near downtown New Orleans, then on the July Fourth holiday, they traveled to Selma to examine what Southern heritage means in our shared world. This article is Tad's and Maurice's conversation about that road trip, with Kasimu's pictures documenting the adventure.

Words by Maurice Carlos Ruffin dan Tad BartlettPhotographs and captions by L. Kasimu Harris

Tad Bartlett: I’d had a three-margarita lunch. Perhaps that was a little excessive, with the added mezcal, but it was a day for drinking. The sky was blue and the air was warm and soft more importantly, Robert E. Lee was finally coming down. I took my third margarita in a go-cup and walked the couple blocks to the west side of Lee Circle.

A crowd of several hundred were gathered on the barricaded street and in the adjoining gas station parking lot, festive, smiling, occasionally craning their heads up at the statue. A crane rose above Lee, its hook swaying over his head not unlike a noose, while workers rigged him for the final hoisting.

The statue sympathizers had been laying siege to other statues in New Orleans for the previous month, waving Confederate battle flags, League of the South flags, and Trump flags, engaging in screaming matches with locals as first one statue and then another were removed, but on the day Lee came down they must have been on the other side of the traffic circle. On our side was only love and a significant police presence. One fellow showed up with a large speaker on a bike trailer and acted as the DJ for the event. Midnight Star’s “Freak-a-Zoid” caught my ear that was big at the Selma Skating Rink when I was 11. The margaritas had been a good decision. Later, during Prince’s “When Doves Cry,” a unicyclist weaved in and out of the crowd, rhythmically swirling a leopard-print scarf, while two schoolkids and two old ladies began double-dutch jump-roping.

All afternoon the crews had struggled to get a strap around the statue, loosening bolts, examining up close then backing their movable platform down, conferring endlessly. It started to seem like the statue might never come down. Decades had passed since activists, including Marie Galatas, Avery Alexander, Malcolm Suber, Leon Waters, and more recently the Take ’Em Down Nola group formed in 2014 and led by Suber, Michael “Quess?” Moore and Angela Kinlaw, had begun advocating removal of the monuments and other memorials to white supremacy in New Orleans. Almost two years had passed since Mayor Mitch Landrieu had joined in the cause in the wake of the massacre of black worshippers by a Confederate-inspired terrorist at Emanuel A.M.E. Church in Charleston. The statue-removal had been tied up for the past year and a half in federal court by pro-statue groups, and almost a month had passed since the final court judgment allowing the removal to go forward. A lot of pressure had built up.

Then, as I awaited Maurice and Kasimu, Lee popped off his pedestal.

I had expected something more — a wrenching loose, a crumbling of marble, a clanging of iron, an anguished rebel yell, a gospel choir, sirens, thunder, earthquakes, a plague of locusts, the death angels and melting Nazi faces from “Raiders of the Lost Ark,” something, but the removal was ultimately notable for the silent peacefulness with which Lee lifted off. I felt a physical release, like a tooth that had been too long loose had just let go of the last dangling nerve tethering it to the socket where it was no longer useful.

Tad Bartlett and Maurice Ruffin after the removal of the Robert E. Lee statue in New Orleans, talking with Michael "Quess" Moore of Take 'Em Down NOLA, and Jeff Thomas

Maurice Ruffin: I knew very well that the removal of the Robert E. Lee Horcrux, as I called it, would be a historic moment. That’s why I missed it. My attitude toward the monuments flap, which began evolving with the yelling matches at City Hall in 2015, had reached its nadir. The intensifying stream of anonymous racist rhetoric online over the year of removal debates had convinced me the four monuments had to go. After each of the first three were removed, I’d visited each site and celebrated each time. But by the date of the final removal, something in me had changed. Monuments are symbols that hold power over people, I thought. And now this stupid, old statue of Robert Eddie Lee held power over me.

“Looks like it’s happening,” Tad’s text said, as I shrugged my feet into boots and ran out of the house.

I arrived in time to find an empty plinth. The statue was tucked behind a large, nearby truck while the work crew, masked to hide their faces from people who might identify and hurt them, hauled it onto a flatbed. I convened with Tad and Kasimu, but when the police escort mobilized, Kasimu took off running. He wanted a good shot. Tad and I lumbered after him.

What I remember most about the statue, which lay horizontal on the flatbed that crept by, was how at peace this object of intense controversy looked. Lee’s arms were crossed, his eyes so dark they seemed closed. His skin was the color of mushrooms, and mushrooms reminded me of death. I hadn’t missed witnessing a removal. I’d missed a funeral.

Lee Circle, New Orleans, moments after the statue was removed from its towering pedestal.

TB: We’d decided the day before Lee’s statue came down that the three of us would go to Selma after the statue removal was done, that I would bring Maurice and Kasimu to my old hometown and introduce them to the people and place from which I’d long ago escaped. We would explore this idea of Southern heritage — “heritage” meaning more than one group’s frozen snapshot, but a full vision of a collective past that shaped a divided present and that could suggest a unified future — for two towns, for a region, for a country.

We carved out 48 hours over the July Fourth holiday. As the day of our departure grew closer, I became anxious we wouldn’t be able to pull it off — that Selma might disappoint my two New Orleans friends in some way, that it might be too stuck in the past, or too small in its concerns or that my memory was too large, too inaccurate or that Selma wouldn’t want to give me the time of day.

I’d made a playlist to make the drive less anxious — songs I’d listened to on the tape deck of my old hatchback when I drove around Selma on weekend nights, punk music, hip-hop, jazz, poets, protest songwriters, geniuses. Maurice, Kasimu, and I listened to those songs as we headed out of New Orleans late afternoon on July 3, as we turned off the Interstate north of Mobile, onto U.S. Highway 43, through the little towns of Creola, MacIntosh, Mount Vernon, and across the Tombigbee River into Jackson.

MR: I’ve never liked the South. I don’t hate the place where I was born and have always lived. I’m not even bitter about it. I’m just not much of a fan. Kenapa? There’s a moment that happens anytime I travel anywhere south of the Mason-Dixon line with friends. It’s usually a fleeting incident — what the woke kids call a microaggression, a term that makes me think of a mosquito landing on my thigh. But these moments never fail to remind me that I have a place and that some people want to make sure I understand where that place is. The moments usually happen so quickly they almost don’t register. Whenever I realize what’s going on, my cheeks get hot and I’m always a bit embarrassed that it’s happening. Like getting caught on a jumbotron while you’re scarfing down a hot dog.

This trip’s Moment occurred after I placed an order at an old-timey burger joint Tad insisted was a slice of Americana Pie. At this place, they take your money when you order, but don’t take your name or give you a ticket or anything. Then, you sit and wait. Eventually, someone calls out the contents of your order, and you go get it. I sat at a picnic table and watched a group of teens and tweens. One girl playfully tortured her little brother. Then, the cheerful kids got their grub from the counter. This is the South, I thought. This is America.

Finally, my order came up. At the window, a pretty girl in a blue T-shirt held my order like you might hold a puppy by the scruff of its neck.

“Did you pay for this?” she asked, skeptically. I considered for a moment that maybe mistakes were made. Maybe they had given me a receipt, and I lost it. Or maybe they asked for my name, and I forgot to give it. Maybe I really hadn’t paid for the food, after all. Who knew? Perhaps someone else ordered the exact same thing. It’s such a funny thing to gaslight yourself.

My stomach turned, my cheeks warmed, and my heart raced. I was furious, but bit my tongue. Losing my temper after sunset in rural Alabama couldn’t possibly end well for me.

“Why yes.” I smiled, “I paid. Promise.” The girl extended her arm and plopped the bag into my hands. I went back to the table. Tad shot me a look.

“The craziest thing,” I said.

TB: We drove out of Jackson past crowds of teenagers pulled over to the side of the road, grouped together atop the hoods and trunks of their cars, in pickup beds, all watching to the freshly darkened western sky. Fireworks a day early, as in so many little towns worried about getting up early to go to work on the fifth day of July.

Up U.S. 43 through the Alabama night, through Grove Hill and on to Thomasville, where my family had lived for a year, when I was 5, in a two-bedroom apartment in a complex with a Doberman Pinscher who left teeth marks in me more than once, an old lady who fed kids sugar cubes that she’d soaked in brandy and then lit on fire, and some asshole who threw my Big Wheel into the kudzu-lined ravine next to the parking lot. Then up state Highway 5 through Pine Hill, where my Dad worked in the paper mill, then up state Highway 22 and into Selma, where we’d moved when I was 6.

It was nearing 10:30 p.m. on July 3 when we pulled up to the St. James Hotel on Water Avenue. Built in 1837, it had been the grand hotel where the planters stayed when they came to ship cotton and buy people. It survived the burning of much of the town in 1865 after Union Gen. James Wilson’s troops defeated the Confederates guarding Selma.

We put our stuff down in our corner suite and stepped out onto the balcony overlooking the river, glasses of rye whiskey in hand. To our right, perched in humid air over gurgling water, was the Edmund Pettus Bridge, as real and mythical as ever.

The Edmund Pettus Bridge, Selma, Alabama.

MR: Whenever I arrive in a new place, I consider escape routes. This was hard to do upon arriving in Selma because we’d traveled a narrow, country road long after dark. The hotel didn’t reassure me. The lobby was full of pictures of the white people who came together to refurbish the building after it fell into decades of ruin. The house style was Baroque furniture, glazed fixtures, ornate carpets. I wondered whose bodies the money was extracted from to create this place.

Just when I began thinking the place was too much of a metaphor for the whole South, I noticed a room off the lobby called The Planters’ Parlor. “Planter” is a euphemism for the men who shipped black people to plantations and worked them to death without pay. A parlor is a place for relaxation or games. But it’s also a place, such as in a monastery, where monks converse with travelers seeking enlightenment. I didn’t want enlightenment from the ghosts who once reclined in that room, so I grabbed my luggage and took my black ass upstairs.

After drinks, Kasimu and Tad headed out for a midnight walk around.

TB: Kasimu made me nervous at first with the photographs he was trying to capture of the old Washington Street Grocery. He seemed oblivious to the groups of young black men gathered around parked cars, music blaring, bass booming, drinking from paper-sacked cans and bottles, throwing stern looks our way. But in my nervousness I felt not just a little like another typical scared white man, and I kept my mouth shut.

I shadowed Kasimu through a parking lot and down a sidewalk past more groups hanging out. Then, a car passed by, windows down, young women inside laughing and partying to music on a hot summer night, and I felt calmer. I was once again Tad who used to live here. How time can stretch forever and change you, then vanish in an instant.

Gunshots popped behind us. Once, twice, three times. Cars sped toward us from the direction of the shots, turned the corner onto Broad in each direction, all leaving the scene.

“Come on, stay down, move,” Kasimu said, and we moved, staying close to the storefronts, pausing for a moment before crossing an open lot, moving back in the direction of the hotel. More cars sped down the street.

We knocked to be let into the lobby by a security guard.

“Hear anything?” Kasimu asked him.

The security guard paused for a moment. “Always something happening in Selma,” he said, then turned and looked back out the front windows.

TB: It was a quiet holiday morning as we walked out of the hotel. We met no one on our one-block walk to the foot of the Edmund Pettus Bridge.

Edmund Winston Pettus was a delegate to the Alabama secession convention in 1861. The infantry units he commanded surrendered to Union forces three times in 1862 and 1863. He later commanded brigades in the Confederates’ losing battles in Chattanooga, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. After the war, he was named the Grand Dragon of the Alabama Ku Klux Klan and was elected twice to the U.S. Senate based on “his virulent opposition to the constitutional amendments following the Civil War that elevated former slaves to the status of free citizens,” as journalist Errin Whack wrote for Smithsonian two years ago.

The Edmund Pettus Bridge is not known for this failed military man and white supremacist, but for the horrors and bravery of a series of Civil Rights marches in 1965. It’s known for John Lewis’s blood, for mounted posse-men’s chains and barbed-wire-wrapped clubs, for tear gas and screams. It’s known for a march two weeks later led arm-in-arm by Lewis, Martin Luther King Jr., and local pastor and activist Frederick D. Reese (also the principal of Selma High School my senior year).

As a kid, I’d hung out underneath the bridge, its shadows a salve to summer heat, the river water’s shimmering reflections on its underside, car tires percussing across expansion joints above.

MR: The Civil Rights park across the river at the base of the Pettus Bridge saddened me. I had been to the Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument, the Martin Luther King National Historic Site in Atlanta, the Lorraine Hotel in Memphis, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam. There was a magnificence to each, and they were well-maintained and crowded with visitors.

The Selma site couldn’t have appeared more of an afterthought. Here I was at the site of one of the most dramatic confrontations of the Civil Rights Movement, but the park seemed as if it had been thrown up overnight like graffiti. The site sat off to the side, in the crook of the bridge’s elbow. If you tossed a burger wrapper out of your car, this is where it would land.

Sleek, funereal monoliths sat next to flimsy, vinyl banners honoring unknown slaves and soldiers. Several wooden pavilions were arrayed toward the riverbank, rotting in the morning heat and humidity.

Someone cared about the park. People had used their own money and sweat to place the monuments here. But the people who did this were fighting a losing battle. They didn’t have the money, clout, or community support to do what should be done properly.

I looked back up at the bridge and realized I didn’t know anything. I claimed support for the people who put their bodies on the line in the 1960s. But I dishonored them with my indifference. Saya berasa malu. I was a bandwagon activist.

TB: We drove to the Old Live Oak Cemetery, where dirt paths meander through dappled shade of oak and magnolia trees draped in Spanish moss. I used to spent afternoons wandering the gravestones, piecing together stories of infants and mothers born as long ago as the late 1700s and of young men killed in battle, names known and unknown. I’d made out with girls there, written angsty teen-ager poems.

In 2015, the local United Daughters of the Confederacy — the “Friends of Forrest,” named for Nathan Bedford Forrest, the original Klan Grand Wizard and the Confederate general who lost the Battle of Selma — gained ownership of a one-acre circle in the middle of the cemetery. They erected tall flagpoles featuring the Confederate battle flag and the stars-and-bars, a bust of Forrest, and security cameras. They also regularly plant small Confederate battle flags throughout the cemetery, a bloody flag field like fire in the sunlight. The Friends of Forrest have long been helmed by Pat Godwin, who describes her role in promoting the Confederate cause and the memory of Forrest as “providential. … [O]ur Lord has allowed me to be just a small part in this effort to pay homage to Gen. Forrest that is properly due him, especially here in Selma….”

A bust of Confederate general and Ku Klux Klan leader Nathan Bedford Forrest in the Old Live Oak Cemetery

MR: What surprised me most was how little I felt. I was standing beneath a tall post-Reconstruction obelisk dedicated to the Confederacy. It seemed every other headstone was decorated with a little Confederate flag. A few yards away sat a cannon that fired munitions at the Union soldiers who came to liberate people who looked like me. The inscription on the bust of Forrest lauded him as a “Wizard of the Saddle.” But my heart didn’t race. I guess I was confused.

To be clear, I hate the Confederacy and all it stands for, but I was struck by the fact that I was actually in the heart of the Confederacy. Whereas New Orleans did not vigorously fight to oppose the Union’s liberation, an actual battle took place in Selma. Men, whether I agreed with them or not, fought and died here.

I had a fleeting thought that, if the Confederacy couldn’t have a monument here, then where could they? This was the effect standing in a cemetery in the Heart of Dixie had on me. Like I said, I was confused.

TB: We were in for pleasant graveyard company, my old friend Vaughan Russell. An older pillar of the Selma community, Vaughan is a lawyer and municipal judge. When I was in high school, I appeared before him on a reckless driving ticket. One summer in college, I worked for him as a law clerk. My senior year of high school, Vaughan was my lawyer, representing me when two white vice-principals at the high school tried to expel me.

In 1990, the six white school board members voted against the five black school board members to end their contract with the city school system’s first black superintendent, Dr. Norward Roussell, a bright and innovative educator from New Orleans. I was one of the students leading a series of protests supporting his contract’s renewal. I received telephoned death threats, “nigger lover” notes under my windshield, and an anonymous letter accusing me of being an “anti-white racist against your own race.” The two white vice-principals began interrogating me for a couple hours every day about an unsubstantiated rumor about drinking on a debate team trip. They yelled at me that they’d suspended “two of them black kids” for drinking after a track meet and they would by-God expel me.

So, Vaughan and I have some history. Plus he’s proudly and compassionately liberal in a small Southern town, an example I’ve taken to heart. Together, we strolled around the Confederate Circle. “Now there used to be markers here for the unknown Union soldiers killed in the Battle of Selma where are they?” Vaughan said as we walked among the low old gravestones.

“I thought I remembered markers for Union soldiers, too,” I said, “but figured maybe I was misremembering.”

“Oh, no, you were remembering right.” There were a handful of blank spots in the otherwise even rows of stones.

Vaughan regaled us with stories from his family’s past. He pointed to a plot near the Confederate Circle, where one of his Civil War-era ancestors was buried. I asked Vaughan, with his family’s long ties to Selma, what his feelings were as to the battle flag and the “heritage” arguments.

“The Confederate battle flag has its place in museums,” he answered. “I do not connect on any level with those who would carry it in public or display it as an item with current meaning. I’m named for a captain who served in the cavalry for the CSA, but after he returned home and at his death, he loved both his region and his country, or at least that is what I have been told by my grandmother. I would like to think that some of the vestiges of his character remain with me.”

No such character appears to reside in the motives of Godwin and her ilk, the ones who had taken a peaceful spot in the cemetery and turned it into a segregationist-era wet dream of Confederate battle-flag paraphernalia. In an April 2013 post on one “Southern Heritage” Facebook page, Godwin referred to Selma as “Zimbabwe on de Alabamy,” and to the fight to dedicate public space to a statue of Forrest as a “Jungle Campaign.” In another post submitted to a pro-Confederate website in 2012, she wrote that “… there is NO justice for white folks anymore,” continuing, “I am as President Davis … one without a country … that is until we reconvene in Montgomery, Alabama once again as a GOVERNMENT OF OUR OWN!” The genteel Daughters of the Confederacy, ladies and gentlemen.


Edmund Pettus Bridge

The Edmund Pettus Bridge crosses the Alabama River in Selma, Alabama. The bridge was the site of a landmark event in the history of the civil rights movement that became known as “Bloody Sunday.” On that day in 1965, white law-enforcement officers violently dispersed African American protesters as they crossed the bridge during the Selma March.

The Edmund Pettus Bridge is a four-lane bridge made of steel and concrete. The bridge measures some 1,248 feet (380 meters) in length and is located in Selma’s historic city center. Workers completed the bridge in 1940, and city officials named it for Edmund Winston Pettus. Pettus was born in Alabama and was from a family of wealthy cotton planters who owned enslaved persons. During the American Civil War, Pettus joined the Confederacy and quickly moved up the ranks to become a general. He was a member of the Ku Klux Klan and in his later years served as a U.S. senator.

In 1965 civil rights activists gathered in Selma to protest voting rights violations against African Americans. The activists planned a march from Selma to Montgomery, the state’s capital, on Sunday, March 7, 1965. After the marchers crossed the bridge, however, they encountered sheriff’s deputies, deputized civilians, and dozens of state troopers. The police told the marchers to leave, but, before they could, the state troopers advanced. They threw tear gas, spat on the marchers, and attacked them with clubs and whips. More than 50 marchers were injured.

After the incident the Edmund Pettus Bridge stood as a symbol of the fight for African American civil rights. The U.S. government designated it a National Historic Landmark in 2013. Because of Pettus’s connection with slavery and white supremacy, civil rights activists beginning in the early 21st century petitioned to have the bridge renamed. Many proposed that it be named after activist and politician John Lewis, one of the African American leaders of the march on Bloody Sunday. In the aftermath of renewed Black Lives Matter activism in 2020 as well as Lewis’s death that same year, interest resurfaced in renaming the bridge after him.


Tonton videonya: Good Riddance - Edmund Pettus Bridge Official Audio (Mungkin 2022).