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Kelahiran Liga Bola Sepak Negara

Kelahiran Liga Bola Sepak Negara


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14 lelaki itu berkumpul di dalam bilik pameran automotif Jordan dan Hupmobile di pusat bandar Canton, Ohio, pada malam 17 September 1920, akhirnya siap untuk membuat perjanjian. Mereka datang ke dealer Ralph Hay bukan untuk mencari set roda baru, tetapi liga bola sepak profesional baru untuk menyelamatkan mereka dari diri mereka sendiri.

Menjelang tahun 1920, bola sepak pro tetap dibayangi sepenuhnya oleh permainan kuliah dan kubu yang hanya terbatas di bandar-bandar industri Midwestern kecil. Lebih buruk lagi bagi pemilik pasukan, mereka mengalami pendarahan kerana gaji pemain yang melambung tinggi dan perang yang sengit ketika mereka memburu pemain dari pasukan lain. Pemilik pasukan pro bebas ini menginginkan liga yang kuat seperti yang ada dalam bola keranjang untuk mendapatkan lebih banyak kawalan terhadap sukan ini - dan kewangan mereka.

Hay, pemilik juara Liga Ohio yang memerintah Canton Bulldogs, telah mengundang wakil dari tiga pasukan dalam negeri yang lain untuk mengadakan perjumpaan organisasi di bilik pamerannya pada 20 Ogos di mana mereka menyetujui garis besar persatuan baru. Menurut Canton Evening Repository, tujuan usaha baru itu adalah "meningkatkan taraf bola sepak profesional dengan segala cara yang mungkin, untuk menghilangkan penawaran pemain antara kelab saingan dan mendapatkan kerjasama dalam pembentukan jadwal."

Hampir sebulan kemudian, kesepakatan siap dicapai. Hay mengumpulkan wakil dari 11 kelab bola sepak profesional yang ditaburkan di Ohio, Illinois, Indiana dan New York: Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indian, Dayton Triangles, Decatur Staleys, Hammond Pros, Massillon Tigers, Muncie Flyers, Racine Cardinals, Rochester Jeffersons dan Rock Pulau Bebas. (Begitu tidak dikenali adalah pasukan yang bahkan pada minit pertemuan secara keliru menyenaraikan Cardinals, yang bermain di rumah di Normal Park di Chicago Racine Avenue, kerana berasal dari bandar Wisconsin dengan nama yang sama.) Tidak dapat memasuki pejabat Hay pada malam yang panas , perintis bola sepak, termasuk Jim Thorpe dan George Halas, duduk di papan lari dan fender kereta bernilai $ 3,000 di lantai bilik pameran dan mengambil botol bir sejuk dari baldi sejuk ketika mereka membuat perjanjian.

Menurut risalah mesyuarat yang diketik di kepala surat Pasukan Bola Sepak Profesional Akron, item pertama perniagaan adalah sesuatu yang tidak menguntungkan — penarikan Massillon sebelum liga bahkan dibentuk secara rasmi. Kemudian, mereka berpindah dan memasukkan cadangan untuk membentuk gabungan yang dikenali sebagai Persatuan Bola Sepak Profesional Amerika (APFA). Liga baru memerlukan presiden untuk memimpin organisasi dan menjadi wajah umum, dan pilihan itu memerlukan sedikit perbahasan. Wakil pasukan sebulat suara memilih Thorpe yang berusia 32 tahun, bintang Canton Bulldogs yang walaupun melewati masa perdanaanya masih disebut-sebut oleh akhbar seperti Milwaukee Journal sebagai "atlet terhebat di dunia." Sesungguhnya, pilihan tarikan gerbang terbesar gridiron mengumpulkan lebih banyak dakwat di surat khabar di seluruh negara daripada pembentukan APFA itu sendiri.

Permainan pertama yang melibatkan pasukan APFA berlangsung pada 26 September 1920, di Douglas Park di Rock Island, Illinois, ketika kampung halaman Independents menyamakan kedudukan St. Paul Ideals 48-0. Pertempuran head-to-head pertama dalam liga berlaku satu minggu kemudian ketika Dayton mendahului Columbus 14-0 dan Rock Island mengatasi Muncie 45-0.

Walaupun dimensi gridiron sama pada tahun 1920 seperti hari ini, permainan pro itu sendiri sangat berbeza. Hantaran ke depan jarang berlaku, latihan dari luar dilarang dan pemain bertanding atas kedua-dua serangan dan pertahanan. Wang begitu ketat sehingga Halas membawa peralatan, menulis siaran akhbar, menjual tiket, buku lali pergelangan kaki, bermain dan melatih kelab Decatur. Berbanding dengan jadual 16 permainan biasa hari ini, kelab pada tahun 1920 menjadwalkan lawan mereka sendiri dan boleh bermain pasukan nonleague dan bahkan kolej yang diperhitungkan dalam rekod mereka. Tanpa panduan yang ditetapkan, jumlah permainan yang dimainkan — dan kualiti lawan yang dijadwalkan — oleh pasukan APFA bervariasi, dan liga tidak mempertahankan kedudukan resmi.

The Buffalo All-American, Chicago Tigers, Columbus Panhandles dan Detroit Heralds menyertai liga sebelum akhir musim, meningkatkan jumlah pasukan menjadi 14, tetapi musim perdana adalah perjuangan. Permainan tidak mendapat perhatian daripada peminat - dan lebih kurang lagi dari media. Menurut buku Robert W. Peterson “Pigskin: The Early Years of Pro Football,” permainan APFA rata-rata berjumlah 4,241 orang. Peraturan perundangan persatuan meminta pasukan membayar yuran masuk $ 100, tetapi tidak ada yang melakukannya. Muncie hanya bermain satu perlawanan sebelum tersingkir sebelum akhir musim, yang berakhir pada 19 Disember.

Pada akhir musim ini tidak ada babak playoff - apalagi Super Bowl - dan memerlukan lebih dari empat bulan sebelum liga bahkan mengganggu untuk menjulang juara. Sama seperti bola sepak perguruan selama beberapa dekad, APFA menentukan pemenangnya dengan undi. Pada 30 April 1921, perwakilan pasukan memilih Akron Pros, yang menyelesaikan musim tanpa kalah dengan lapan kemenangan dan tiga seri dengan hanya memperoleh tujuh mata, juara walaupun mendapat bantahan oleh pasukan satu kekalahan di Decatur dan Buffalo, yang masing-masing mengikat Akron dan lebih banyak kemenangan. Para pemenang menerima cawan perak yang disumbangkan oleh syarikat barang sukan Brunswick-Balke-Collender. Walaupun pemain tidak diberi cincin berlian berlian, mereka menerima bola emas dalam bentuk bola sepak yang tertulis dengan kata-kata "Juara Dunia."

Memerlukan pemimpin dengan kepintaran perniagaan yang lebih besar, pemilik pasukan menggantikan Thorpe dengan pemilik Columbus Panhandles Joe Carr, dan pada tahun 1922, APFA menjenamakan semula dirinya sebagai Liga Bola Sepak Nasional. Semasa tahun 20-an menderu, NFL tergagap. Bola sepak kolej tetap menjadi raja, menarik orang ramai sebanyak 100,000, sementara francais NFL datang dan pergi. Hanya setelah penandatanganan fenomena perguruan Red Grange pada tahun 1925, bola sepak pro mula meningkat populariti.

Musim pertama NFL begitu cepat dilupakan dalam ingatan sukan kolektif sehingga buku rekod rasmi liga menyenaraikan kejuaraan tahun 1920 sebagai belum ditentukan sehingga tahun 1970-an. Keberadaan Piala Brunswick-Balke-Collender, yang hanya diberikan sekali, tidak diketahui. Walau bagaimanapun, warisan dua francais APFA masih berterusan. The Racine Cardinals kini bermain di Arizona, dan Decatur Staleys berpindah ke Chicago pada tahun 1921 dan menukar nama mereka menjadi Bears pada tahun berikutnya. Sepuluh pemain APFA bersama Carr diabadikan di Pro Football Hall of Fame, yang dibuka pada tahun 1963 tidak jauh dari dealer automotif Canton yang melahirkan NFL pada tahun 1920.


Sejarah Liga Bola Sepak Negara

The sejarah Liga Bola Sepak Negara berakar sejak tahun 1892 ketika bekas pengawal Yale All-American William Heffelfinger dibayar $ 500 oleh Allegheny Athletic Association untuk bermain dalam permainan menentang Pittsburgh Athletic Club, menjadikannya pemain bola sepak profesional pertama. Namun, sehingga tahun 1920 bola sepak Amerika mencapai liga orga sejati

Keahlian liga secara beransur-ansur stabil sepanjang tahun 1920-an dan 1930-an ketika liga mengadopsi organisasi yang semakin formal. Permainan kejuaraan rasmi pertama diadakan pada tahun 1933. NFL berhenti menandatangani pemain hitam pada tahun 1927 tetapi bergabung semula pada tahun 1946 setelah Perang Dunia II. Perubahan lain berlaku selepas perang, jawatan Presiden liga berkembang menjadi jawatan Pesuruhjaya yang lebih kuat, mencerminkan pergerakan serupa di Major League Baseball. Pasukan menjadi lebih berdaya maju dari segi kewangan, pasukan terakhir dilipat pada tahun 1952. Menjelang tahun 1958, ketika permainan kejuaraan NFL musim itu dikenali sebagai "The Greatest Game Ever Played", NFL sedang dalam perjalanan untuk menjadi salah satu liga sukan paling popular di Amerika Syarikat.

Liga Bola Sepak Amerika yang bersaing ditubuhkan pada tahun 1959. Ia sangat berjaya, dan memaksa penggabungan dengan NFL yang lebih tua yang menghasilkan liga yang sangat berkembang dan penciptaan Super Bowl, yang telah menjadi acara sukan tahunan yang paling banyak ditonton di Amerika Syarikat. Liga terus berkembang dengan ukuran sekarang 32 pasukan. Serangkaian perjanjian buruh pada tahun 1990-an dan kontrak televisyen yang semakin besar telah membantu menjadikan liga sebagai yang paling menguntungkan di A.S., dan satu-satunya liga utama di A.S. sejak tahun 1990 untuk mengelakkan penghentian kerja yang besar.

Gelaran Bola Sepak Profesional * Ώ]
(AFL, NFL, dan Super Bowl)
† = pasukan yang tidak berfungsi
Pasukan Tajuk
Pembungkus Green Bay 13
Beruang Chicago 9
Gergasi New York 7
Pittsburgh Steelers 6
Washington Redskins 5
Indianapolis Colts 5
San Francisco 49ers 5
Koboi Dallas 5
Cleveland Browns 4
Detroit Singa 4
Oakland Raiders 4
Patriot New England 3
Philadelphia Eagles 3
Louis Rams 3
Ketua Bandar Kansas 3
Lumba-lumba Miami 2
Kardinal Arizona 2
Bulldog Canton † 2
Denver Broncos 2
Tennessee Titans 2
Bil Kerbau 2
Kelebihan Akron † 1
Baltimore Ravens 1
Bulldog Cleveland † 1
Frankford Yellowjackets † 1
Minnesota Viking 1
Jet New York 1
Orang Suci New Orleans 1
Roller Steam Providence † 1
Tampa Bay Buccaneers 1
Pengecas San Diego 1


Kelab bola sepak pertama

Kelab bola sepak telah wujud sejak abad ke-15, tetapi tidak tersusun dan tanpa status rasmi. Oleh itu, sukar untuk memutuskan mana kelab bola sepak pertama. Beberapa sejarawan berpendapat bahawa itu adalah Foot-Ball Club yang dibentuk pada tahun 1824 di Edinburgh. Kelab-kelab awal sering dibentuk oleh bekas pelajar sekolah dan yang pertama seumpamanya dibentuk di Sheffield pada tahun 1855. Kelab-kelab bola sepak yang tertua di kalangan profesional adalah kelab Inggeris Notts County yang dibentuk pada tahun 1862 dan masih wujud hingga sekarang.

Langkah penting untuk kemunculan pasukan adalah perindustrian yang menyebabkan kumpulan orang yang lebih besar bertemu di tempat-tempat seperti kilang, pub dan gereja. Pasukan bola sepak ditubuhkan di bandar-bandar besar dan jalan kereta api baru dapat membawa mereka ke bandar-bandar lain.

Pada mulanya, bola sepak didominasi oleh pasukan sekolah awam, tetapi kemudian, pasukan yang dianggotai oleh pekerja akan menjadi majoriti. Perubahan lain berlaku berturut-turut apabila beberapa kelab bersedia membayar pemain terbaik untuk menyertai pasukan mereka. Ini akan menjadi permulaan peralihan jangka panjang, bukan tanpa gesekan, di mana permainan akan berkembang ke tahap profesional.

Motivasi di belakang pemain membayar bukan hanya untuk memenangi lebih banyak perlawanan. Pada tahun 1880-an minat dalam permainan telah meningkat ke tahap yang tiketnya dijual ke pertandingan. Dan akhirnya, pada tahun 1885 bola sepak profesional disahkan dan tiga tahun kemudian Liga Bola Sepak ditubuhkan. Pada musim pertama, 12 kelab menyertai liga, tetapi tidak lama lagi lebih banyak kelab berminat dan pertandingan akan berkembang menjadi lebih banyak bahagian.

Untuk masa yang lama, pasukan Inggeris akan dominan. Selepas beberapa dekad, kelab-kelab dari Prague, Budapest dan Sienna akan menjadi pesaing utama penguasaan Inggeris.

Seperti banyak perkara dalam sejarah, wanita telah lama tidak termasuk dalam permainan. Tidak sebelum akhir abad ke-19 wanita mula bermain bola sepak. Permainan wanita rasmi pertama berlaku di Inverness pada tahun 1888.


Kelahiran liga baru

Pada 20 Ogos 1920, di sebuah dealer Hupmobile di Canton, Ohio, liga ini diformalkan, asalnya sebagai Persidangan Bola Sepak Profesional Amerika, pada mulanya hanya terdiri dari pasukan Liga Ohio, walaupun beberapa pasukan menolak penyertaan. [4] Satu bulan kemudian pada 17 September, liga dinamakan semula sebagai Persatuan Bola Sepak Profesional Amerika, menambahkan Buffalo dan Rochester dari liga New York, dan Detroit, Hammond (skuad Chicago pinggir bandar), dan beberapa pasukan lain dari litar berdekatan. Sebelas pasukan pengasas pada awalnya membuat persetujuan mengenai pemburuan haram dan pengisytiharan sebagai juara akhir musim. Thorpe, ketika masih bermain untuk Bulldogs, dipilih sebagai presiden. Hanya empat pasukan pengasas yang menamatkan jadual 1920 dan Akron Pros yang tidak terkalahkan meraih kejuaraan pertama. Keanggotaan liga meningkat kepada 22 pasukan - termasuk lebih banyak pasukan New York - pada tahun 1921, tetapi sepanjang tahun 1920-an keahliannya tidak stabil dan liga bukan sukan utama negara. Pada 24 Jun 1922, organisasi tersebut, yang kini beribu pejabat di Columbus, Ohio, mengubah gelarannya sebagai kali terakhir menjadi Liga Bola Sepak Nasional. [5]

Dua anggota piagam, Chicago Cardinals (sekarang Arizona Cardinals) dan Decatur Staleys (sekarang Chicago Bears), masih ada. Francais Green Bay Packers, yang ditubuhkan pada tahun 1919, adalah pasukan tertua yang tidak menukar lokasi, tetapi tidak memulakan permainan liga sehingga tahun 1921. The New York Football Giants bergabung pada tahun 1925, diikuti oleh Portsmouth Spartans pada tahun 1930, berpindah ke Detroit pada tahun 1934 untuk menjadi Singa. [6] Francais Indianapolis Colts menelusuri sejarahnya melalui beberapa pendahulu, termasuk salah satu pasukan pengasas liga - Dayton Triangles - tetapi dianggap sebagai francais yang terpisah dari pasukan tersebut dan diasaskan sebagai Baltimore Colts pada tahun 1953. Walaupun pasukan NFL yang asal mewakili Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago dan Detroit tidak ada lagi, sejak itu syarikat francais pengganti telah ditubuhkan.

Kejuaraan awal dianugerahkan kepada pasukan dengan rekod menang-kalah terbaik, pada mulanya agak tidak sengaja, kerana beberapa pasukan bermain lebih banyak atau lebih sedikit permainan daripada yang lain, atau perlawanan yang dijadualkan menentang pasukan bukan liga, amatur atau rakan sekerja ini menyebabkan tajuk itu diputuskan. tiebreak pada tahun 1921, gelaran yang dipertikaikan pada tahun 1925, dan penjadualan permainan playoff dalaman yang tidak stabil pada tahun 1932. Kekurangan struktur liga yang tegas bermaksud bahawa banyak pasukan kerap ditambahkan dan dikeluarkan dari liga setiap tahun pemilik francais mungkin berdagang di francaisnya di satu bandar untuk satu kota yang lain (seperti halnya Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Bulldogs dan Detroit Wolverines), dan jika pasukan yang lebih besar atau lebih mantap mahukan pemain di pasaran yang lebih kecil, ia boleh membeli pasukan secara langsung dan melipatnya untuk mendapatkan hak kepada pemain itu, seperti yang dilakukan oleh New York Giants kepada Wolverines pada tahun 1928 untuk mendapatkan Benny Friedman.

Dalam pertemuan liga sebelum musim 1933, tiga pasukan baru, Pirates, Cincinnati Reds dan Eagles, dimasukkan ke NFL. [7] [8] Sepuluh pasukan kemudian berada di NFL dan, atas desakan George Preston Marshall, dengan sokongan Halas, NFL disusun semula menjadi Bahagian Timur dan Bahagian Barat. Di Bahagian Timur terdapat Philadelphia Eagles, Brooklyn Dodgers, New York Giants, Boston Redskins, dan Pittsburgh Pirates. Di Bahagian Barat terdapat Chicago Bears, Portsmouth Spartans, Chicago Cardinals, Green Bay Packers, dan Cincinnati Reds. Tambahan pula, kedua-dua pemilik meyakinkan liga agar bertemu dua pemenang divisyen dalam pertandingan Permainan Kejohanan NFL. [9]

Menjelang tahun 1934, semua pasukan bandar kecil, kecuali Green Bay Packers, telah berpindah ke atau digantikan oleh pasukan di bandar-bandar besar, dan bahkan Green Bay telah mula memainkan sebahagian daripada jadual kediamannya di Milwaukee yang jauh lebih besar untuk lebih banyak sokongan (latihan yang mereka teruskan hingga tahun 1990-an). Pada tahun 1941, ibu pejabat korporat berpindah dari Columbus, Ohio ke Chicago. Selama tahun-tahun awal liga, daripada muncul dengan nama pasukan asal, banyak pasukan NFL hanya memilih nama pasukan Major League Baseball di bandar yang sama. Oleh itu, Pittsburgh Steelers adalah "Pittsburgh Pirates" selama tujuh tahun pertama kewujudan dan pasukan lain seperti Brooklyn Dodgers, Cleveland Indian, Cincinnati Reds, Detroit Tigers, New York Yankees, Washington Senator dan Buffalo Bisons semuanya mewakili NFL sekaligus masa atau yang lain. [10]

Draf tahunan pemain kolej pertama kali diadakan pada tahun 1936. [11] [12] Permainan NFL yang disiarkan di televisyen pertama adalah pada 22 Oktober 1939 dalam permainan yang Eagles tewaskan 23-14 kepada tuan rumah Dodgers di Ebbets Field. [13] [14] Selama era ini, NFL menjadi terpisah: tidak ada pemain hitam dalam bola sepak profesional di Amerika Syarikat antara tahun 1933 dan 1945, terutama disebabkan oleh pengaruh George Preston Marshall, yang memasuki liga pada tahun 1932 sebagai pemilik Boston Braves. Pemilik NFL lain meniru dasar Marshall's white-only untuk meredakan peminat selatan, dan walaupun setelah penghalang warna NFL telah pecah pada tahun 1950-an, Marshall's Washington Redskins tetap putih sehingga terpaksa disatukan oleh pentadbiran Kennedy pada tahun 1962. [15] Walaupun kefanatikannya, Marshall dipilih sebagai anggota piagam Hall of Fame Pro Football yang diilhamkan oleh NFL, terutamanya kerana banyak inovasi (jadual tetap, persidangan berasingan dan permainan kejuaraan) yang digalakkan oleh Marshall semasa dia berada di liga.

Bola sepak kolej adalah daya tarikan yang lebih besar, tetapi pada akhir Perang Dunia II, bola sepak pro mula menyaingi permainan kuliah untuk perhatian peminat. Perubahan peraturan dan inovasi seperti formasi T menyebabkan permainan dengan skor lebih tinggi dan pantas. Liga juga berkembang dari buaian timur dan barat daya pada tahun 1945, Cleveland Rams berpindah ke Los Angeles, menjadi francais sukan liga besar pertama di Pantai Barat. [16] Pada tahun 1950, NFL menerima tiga pasukan - Cleveland Browns, San Francisco 49ers, dan Baltimore Colts - dari Persidangan Bola Sepak All-America yang tidak berfungsi, berkembang ke tiga belas kelab. Untuk tempoh tiga bulan pada tahun 1950 liga ini dinamakan semula sebagai Liga Bola Sepak Nasional-Amerika, yang kemudiannya diubah kembali. [17] [18] Pada tahun 1958, Baltimore Colts dan New York Giants bermain "The Greatest Game Ever Played" untuk kejuaraan. Menjadi permainan bola sepak pertama di televisyen nasional, bersama dengan penghujungnya yang mendebarkan sangat meningkatkan populariti NFL. Melalui kejayaan ini, bola sepak pro akhirnya mendapat tempat sebagai sukan utama.

Kaum minoriti

Pelopor NFL, Persatuan Bola Sepak Profesional Amerika, mempunyai beberapa pemain minoriti, termasuk pemain Afrika-Amerika: antara tahun 1920 dan 1926, sembilan pemain hitam sesuai untuk pasukan NFL. Hal ini juga biasa, kerana bilangan pemain berbakat yang dihasilkan oleh pasukan bola sepak Carlisle Indian School, untuk melihat pasukan (di dalam dan di luar NFL) memasarkan orang Asli Amerika secara terbuka, orang India Oorang pada tahun 1922 hingga 1923 terdiri sepenuhnya bakat Orang Asli Amerika. Berjalan kembali Walter Achiu dan quarterback Arthur Matsu, kedua-duanya dari Dayton Triangles, adalah pemain Asia-Amerika pertama di NFL, masing-masing telah menyertai liga pada tahun 1927 dan 1928. Ignacio Molinet dan Jess Rodriguez adalah pemain Hispanik pertama di NFL dan masing-masing bermain satu musim pada tahun 1927 dan 1929.

Namun, sejak Carlisle ditutup pada tahun 1918, kumpulan bakat orang India telah kering. Sementara itu, semua pemain hitam di NFL (termasuk Hall of Famer Fritz Pollard masa depan) diusir secara ringkas sebelum musim 1927 dengan alasan yang tidak dapat dijelaskan. Dari tahun 1928 hingga 1932, tidak lebih dari satu pemain hitam dapat dijumpai di liga setiap musim, dan tidak ada yang bermain lebih dari dua musim. Pada tahun 1933, terdapat dua: Joe Lillard dan Ray Kemp. Lillard diusir dari Chicago Cardinals untuk bertarung, sementara Kemp pergi untuk mengejar apa yang akan menjadi karier bimbingan yang berjaya. Pergerakan ini menjadikan liga itu serba putih, dan pemilik Boston Redskins George Preston Marshall diduga menggunakan tekanannya untuk tetap seperti itu selama beberapa tahun ke depan, walaupun politik dalaman dan kronisme setiap pasukan, serta kenaikan arus perkauman di Amerika Syarikat secara keseluruhan, juga memainkan peranan penting. Walaupun pada masa-masa perang, ketika banyak bakat NFL berada di luar negeri untuk memerangi Perang Dunia II, pemain seperti Kenny Washington yang tinggal di Amerika Syarikat masih disukai pemain putih dengan keadaan perubatan yang biasanya melemahkan seperti kebutaan separa. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Integrasi NFL berlaku hanya ketika Cleveland Rams ingin pindah ke Los Angeles, dan tempat, Los Angeles Coliseum, mengharuskan mereka mengintegrasikan pasukan mereka. Mereka kemudian menandatangani dua pemain hitam, Kenny Washington dan Woody Strode. [19] Pasukan NFL lain akhirnya mengikutinya, tetapi Marshall menolak untuk mengintegrasikan Redskins sehingga terpaksa oleh pentadbiran Kennedy sebagai pra-syarat untuk menggunakan Stadium D.C. (sekarang Stadium RFK). Walaupun berat sebelah terbuka ini, Marshall terpilih menjadi Pro Football Hall of Fame NFL pada tahun 1963. Pada tahun 1946, Cleveland Browns dari saingan liga Bola Sepak Profesional, Persidangan Bola Sepak All-America, menandatangani dua pemain hitam. Menjelang tahun 1960, pesaing baru NFL, Liga Bola Sepak Amerika, secara aktif merekrut pemain dari kolej-kolej kulit hitam yang lebih kecil yang sebahagian besarnya telah diabaikan oleh NFL, memberi peluang kepada pemain hitam sekolah-sekolah tersebut untuk bermain bola sepak profesional. Pasukan AFL awal rata-rata lebih banyak orang kulit hitam daripada rakan NFL mereka. [20]

Namun, di sebalik dasar pemisahan NFL sebelumnya, kelebihan persaingan jelas pasukan AFL dengan dasar menandatangani liberal mempengaruhi rancangan NFL. Menjelang tahun 1969, perbandingan foto pasukan kejuaraan kedua liga menunjukkan Ketua AFL dengan 23 & # 160 pemain hitam dari 51 & # 160 pemain (45%) digambarkan, sementara NFL's Vikings mempunyai 11 & # 160black, dari 42 & # 160 pemain (26%) di dalam gambar. Pemain Chiefs telah disebutkan bahawa salah satu faktor pendorong kekalahan mereka di Viking dalam Super Bowl IV adalah kebanggaan mereka dalam skuad mereka yang pelbagai. Tinjauan terkini menunjukkan bahawa NFL pasca penggabungan adalah kira-kira 67-71% tidak berkulit putih (ini merangkumi Afrika Amerika, Polinesia, Hispanik bukan kulit putih, orang Asia, dan orang-orang yang berlainan bangsa), jauh lebih tinggi daripada purata nasional kedudukan tertentu, seperti cornerback dan berlari ke belakang, hampir keseluruhannya berwarna hitam.


Sejarah Di Sebalik Liga Bola Sepak Negara

Penubuhan Liga Bola Sepak Nasional banyak mempengaruhi budaya sosial orang Amerika. Ini dicapai kerana orang Amerika suka dan bangga dengan permainan dan persaingan, peningkatan populariti bola sepak di seluruh Amerika, terutama di kolej dan sekolah menengah, karya televisyen, peningkatan bakat atlet, permulaan atlet berbayar dan membahagi NFL menjadi dua bahagian. (Persaingan dalam persaingan yang dipisahkan oleh wilayah Amerika Syarikat.)

Di Amerika Syarikat Timur, permainan yang sangat mirip dengan bola sepak diciptakan dan dimainkan pada pertengahan tahun 1800-an. Ia terdiri daripada 30 pemain atau lebih. Objektif permainan adalah menendang bola melintasi garisan gol pasukan lain. Permainan ini menjadi sangat popular, dan peraturan yang lebih ketat telah diterapkan pada permainan ini. Permainan ini dipanggil bola sepak. Dalam permainan ini, dua pasukan bermain, dan kedua-dua pasukan mempunyai peraturan yang berbeza untuk memainkannya. Satu oleh peraturan McGill, dan yang lain oleh peraturan Harvard. Peraturan Harvard lebih seperti bola sepak, dan peraturan McGill lebih seperti ragbi. Berlari dengan bola dan mengatasi adalah sebab utama mengapa permainan ini diperkenalkan kepada, bukan hanya Harvard, tetapi Eastern Colleges lain di seluruh Amerika Syarikat.

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Meningkatkan permainan adalah keutamaan pertama pada masa ini. Ketika bola sepak gaya ragbi ini menjadi popular, Walter Camp memainkan peranan utama dalam mengembangkan peraturan yang meningkatkan aksi dan persaingan untuk permainan ini.

"Kem bertanggungjawab sepenuhnya untuk mewujudkan sistem turun dan ela untuk mendapatkan dan untuk memperkenalkan snap center ke quarterback. Dia juga membantu mengatur sistem pemarkahan di mana gol, penukaran, gol di lapangan, dan keselamatan bernilai jumlah mata yang berbeza. " (365) Cinta dan kebanggaan untuk permainan berkembang dan begitu juga persaingan. Sekolah menengah dan sekolah-sekolah yang dianjurkan pasukan, dan persaingan meningkat. Sebenarnya persaingan semakin besar sehingga sukan ini menjadi ganas dan berbahaya kerana kurangnya perlindungan dari menangani dan menyekat. Oleh kerana pemain mengalami kecederaan parah kerana kekurangan peralatan yang mencukupi dan tidak ada topi keledar, Theodore Roosevelt menekankan bahawa perubahan harus dilakukan agar permainan ini lebih selamat.

Pendirian permainan "bola sepak" dikembangkan pada pertengahan tahun 1800-an tetapi tidak benar-benar teratur hingga tahun 1920-an. “Pada 17 September 1920, sekumpulan lelaki berkumpul di Canton, Ohio di ruang pameran Hupmobile Ralph Hay, pemilik Bulldogs kampung halaman. Hasil pertemuan itu membawa kelahiran Liga Bola Sepak Nasional. " (Bola sepak)

Pro Football bermula pada tahun 1892, ketika William "Pudge" Heffelfinger, bekas bintang Yale, dibayar sejumlah $ 500 untuk bermain dalam satu permainan untuk Allegheny Athletic Associate pada 12 November, di Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Permainan ini menandakan permulaan bola sepak profesional. Pada tahun 1920 nama APFA (American Football Football Association) kemudian ditukar menjadi NFL (National Football League) kerana penganjuran sukan ini.

Pada tahun 1925, bola sepak profesional mula menarik banyak peminat dan penyokong dengan menandatangani dan membayar atlet hebat untuk bermain di pasukan mereka. Sukan ini akhirnya akan menarik lebih daripada 350,000 peminat untuk menonton permainan pada tahun itu. Televisyen juga memainkan peranan utama dalam menarik orang dan menjana wang. "Jaringan TV membayar berjuta-juta dolar untuk menayangkan permainan." (367) Hingga hari ini, televisyen terus memainkan peranan utama dalam mengadakan acara bola sepak, seperti Super Bowl, yang merupakan acara tahunan televisi di seluruh dunia.

Menjelang tahun 1930-an, NFL dibahagikan kepada dua bahagian, Bahagian Barat, dan Bahagian Timur. Juara setiap Bahagian akan bermain untuk gelaran bola sepak profesional dunia pertama. Menjelang pertengahan tahun 1940-an Persidangan Bola Sepak Amerika-Amerika dibentuk, dan ia terdiri daripada liga lapan pasukan, kemudian liga 13 pasukan selepas penggabungan NFL. Akhirnya AFL, (Liga Bola Sepak Amerika) liga pasukan yang dibentuk pada tahun 1960 memutuskan untuk bergabung dengan NFL setelah enam tahun membentuk Persidangan Bola Sepak Amerika dan Persidangan Bola Sepak Nasional.

Penubuhan Liga Bola Sepak Nasional telah mempengaruhi budaya sosial Amerika Syarikat. Bola sepak bukan sahaja sukan yang menyeronokkan untuk dimainkan, tetapi sukannya yang paling popular dan bermanfaat di Amerika sekarang. Ramai orang bersetuju bahawa bermain sukan, terutama bola sepak, membina watak, mengajar kerja berpasukan, membuat seseorang belajar bagaimana menang dan kalah, mengajar disiplin, dan menjaga anak-anak yang lebih muda dan lebih tua di jalanan. Berjuta-juta dan berjuta-juta orang Amerika menonton permainan bola sepak setiap tahun, dan selalu menonton bola sepak pada hari Ahad. Ini seperti tradisi bagi sesetengah orang. Kecintaan dan kebanggaan untuk permainan akan selalu ada di hati bukan hanya di Liga Bola Sepak Nasional, tetapi di sekolah menengah, Kolej, dan padang berlumpur di mana-mana sahaja.


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1800-an-1900-an: Siapa yang Menubuhkan NFL?

Acara bola sepak profesional pertama yang terkenal berlaku pada tahun 1892. Bola sepak Amerika sebagai sukan telah wujud sebelum itu, tetapi permainan antara Persatuan Atletik Allegheny dan Kelab Atletik Pittsburgh di Pennsylvania pada tahun 1892 adalah kejadian pertama pemain dibayar untuk bermain. Dalam kes ini, pemainnya adalah William & quotPudge & quot Heffelfinger, alumni Yale yang bermain untuk AAA.

Pada tahun-tahun setelah pemain profesional pertama, terdapat beberapa percubaan untuk mendapatkan liga bola sepak profesional rasmi. Pada tahun 1902 bahkan ada yang disebut National Football League, ironisnya dengan pasukan pemain besbol Philadelphia. Tetapi ada banyak wang atau kemarahan, dan liga tidak lama lagi.

Liga tempatan lain muncul dengan tahap kejayaan yang berbeza-beza. Salah satunya adalah Liga Ohio, yang terkenal dengan atlet kelas dunia Jim Thorpe di Canton Bulldogs. Bola sepak semakin popular, tetapi kekurangan organisasi menghalangnya untuk terus berkembang. Menyedari hal ini, pemilik beberapa pasukan Liga Ohio seperti Bulldogs dan Akron Pros bertemu untuk mesyuarat organisasi yang membawa kepada keputusan untuk memulakan liga baru.

Pemilik mengadakan pertemuan kedua, kali ini membawa pasukan tambahan dari New York, Indiana dan Illinois. Pemilik ini semua memutuskan nama: Persatuan Bola Sepak Profesional Amerika. Mereka menamakan Jim Thorpe sebagai Presiden. Inilah pengasas liga yang akan menjadi NFL.

1920-an: Persatuan Bola Sepak Profesional Amerika

Pasukan dari pertemuan yang akan menjadi beberapa pasukan AFPA pertama adalah:

  • Kelebihan Akron
  • Bulldog Canton
  • Orang India Cleveland
  • Segitiga Dayton
  • Decatur Staleys
  • Kelebihan Hammond
  • Muncie Flyers
  • Kardinal Racine
  • Rochester Jeffersons
  • Bebas Pulau Rock

Sebelum bermulanya Persatuan Bola Sepak Profesional Amerika & musim pertama, empat pasukan lain & # xA0 menyertai liga:

  • Kerbau Semua Orang Amerika
  • Harimau Chicago
  • Columbus Panhandles
  • Detroit Heralds

Walaupun 14 pasukan dalam liga, AFPA tidak mengekalkan kedudukan untuk musim ini. Tidak ada playoff. Pada akhir musim, persatuan memberikan kejuaraan kepada Akron Pros, yang tidak terkalahkan dan telah & # xA0eight menang - walaupun Buffalo All-American mempunyai & # xA0nine & # xA0 dan Decatur Staleys mempunyai 10.

Kekurangan organisasi ini menjadi tema berjalan, dan kekurangan sistem playoff menjadikan kejuaraan semakin kontroversial. Pada tahun 1921, permainan yang dimaksudkan hanya sebagai permainan pameran berubah menjadi tiebreak antara Buffalo dan Chicago Staleys yang sekarang menyebabkan Chicago dinobatkan sebagai juara liga. Sistem playoff yang mapan masih ada sedekad lagi.

Sepanjang 20-an, lebih banyak pasukan & # xA0 ditambahkan ke AFPA, sebahagian daripadanya & # xA0telah menjadi pasukan yang masih ada hingga hari ini. Green Bay Packers bergabung pada tahun 1921, dan New York Giants pada tahun 1925. Pasukan-pasukan ini, bersama dengan Cardinals (sekarang di Arizona) dan Staleys (sekarang Chicago Bears), masih merupakan pasukan NFL.

Pada tahun 1922, AFPA menjenamakan semula dan menjadi Liga Bola Sepak Nasional. Sejak itu ia tidak berubah.

Liga terus berkembang, dan pasukan seperti Canton Bulldogs, Frankford Yellow Jackets dan Providence Steam Roller semua & # xA0won kejuaraan. Tetapi NFL tidak berjaya mendapatkan peminat secepat yang diinginkannya, sedikit pun kerana bagaimana liga dilokalisasi ke timur laut dan Midwest.

1930-an-40-an: Playoff Pertama dan Pasukan Baru

1932 mengubah NFL dan cara kejuaraan diberikan. Pada masa itu, juara akan menjadi pasukan dengan peratusan kemenangan tertinggi, tetapi Chicago Bears dan Portsmouth Spartans menamatkan musim diikat pertama. Tanpa tiebreak tambahan, liga membalikkan peraturan jangka panjang terhadap permainan playoff dan mengadakan NFL Championship Game pertama. The Bears menang, 9-0.

Dengan permainan playoff yang mengakhiri kejayaan musim ini, liga merombak sistemnya pada tahun 1933, memisahkan dirinya dari bola sepak masa lalu dan kolej. Now the teams in the league were divided into divisions, the Eastern Division and Western Division (though the league was still so localized that the westernmost teams were in the Midwest). This now-familiar format was a success, and the division winners (New York Giants and Chicago Bears) met in the Championship Game, which the Bears won 23-21.

This new structure was a massive success, and with playoff runs to follow, fans caught on. Teams began to change as well. Some teams from the 20s and 30s fell off and disappeared from the NFL entirely, while others popped up in their wake - also on the East Coast and in the Midwest - and found themselves competing. The teams in NFL Championship Games in the 30s and 40s may look familiar. Not just the Bears and Giants, but the Green Bay Packers, Philadelphia Eagles and Washington Redskins too.

A burgeoning sport, the NFL finally moved out west in 1946 when Cleveland Rams owner Dan Reeves threatened to leave football entirely if the league wouldn&apost let him relocate the team to Los Angeles. He relented, and by 1949 the Los Angeles Rams were in a Championship Game. The sport was expanding nationally.

1940s-50s: Integration in the NFL

Segregation in the NFL isn&apost discussed as much as segregation in baseball. But the mid-1930s into the 40s saw no black players in the league, a time of complete segregation in the NFL.

The first team to make strides toward ending segregation was the now-Los Angeles Rams, albeit by force: Plessy v. Ferguson meant the L.A. Coliseum couldn&apost lease their stadium to a team that was completely segregated. Thus, in 1946 they signed former UCLA star Kenny Washington in March, and Woody Strode in May.

Other NFL teams were slow to integrate their rosters. On the other hand, most of the teams in the All-America Football Conference had managed to integrate their teams in the late 40s. The AAFC later shut down and folded 3 teams into the NFL: the Cleveland Browns, Baltimore Colts and San Francisco 49ers.

Most teams had begun integrating slowly by the early 50s. The exception, to no one&aposs surprise, was the Washington Redskins. Washington owner George Marshall, a man literally known for being racist more than anything else, steadfastly refused to sign or draft black players. This extended all the way until 1962, when Stewart Udall - the secretary of the interior for most of the 1960s - threatened to revoke the team&aposs lease on the stadium, effectively evicting them. Marshall was forced to relent.

The 50s were a great time for the league. Integration, expansion and impressive championship runs from teams like the Lions and Browns helped increase popularity at a time when baseball fans were growing bored of the constant Yankees World Series victories. Football was becoming the popular new sport.

1960s: The AFL, the First Super Bowl and the Merger

The NFL also started facing competition from other leagues. In the 50s, after a failed attempt to buy an NFL team and bring them to Dallas, oil heir Lamar Hunt formulated plans to create a rival football league. The first official meeting between Hunt and other owners took place in August 1959, and by November the American Football League (AFL) had its first draft.

One owner left before the league could start as the NFL approved their team in Minnesota, but in 1960 the league had a television contract and 8 teams:

  • Boston Patriots
  • Bil Kerbau
  • Dallas Texans
  • Denver Broncos
  • Houston Oilers
  • Los Angeles Chargers
  • New York Titans
  • Oakland Raiders

In the first few years, the AFL had middling success and didn&apost pose much of a threat to the NFL. But they did well enough to, in 1964, sign a new and better TV contract with NBC. This lucrative deal meant more money for the league, and suddenly teams had the funds to compete with the NFL for players. The most noteworthy of these players was Joe Namath, who was drafted by the Cardinals in the NFL and the New York Jets (formerly the titans) in the AFL and chose to sign with the Jets.

The AFL became more popular, and the leagues essentially found themselves in bidding wars, trying to outbid the other for draft picks and even trying to poach players from opposing leagues. Dallas Cowboys owner Tex Schramm approached Lamar Hunt about a potential merger.

A series of secret meetings hammered out the details of the merger, and in June of 1966, the AFL-NFL merger was officially announced. The combined leagues had 24 teams (including newly formed NFL expansion teams Atlanta Falcons and Miami Dolphins) and per the merger would expand to 26 teams by 1968 (which ended up being the New Orleans Saints and Cincinnati Bengals) and 28 teams by 1970 or "soon thereafter" (these teams ended up being the Seattle Seahawks and Tampa Bay Buccaneers).

Another part of the agreement was that while the AFL and NFL would play separate regular season schedules up to 1969, at the end of the season the league champions would play an "AFL-NFL World Championship Game." This was the first iteration of the Super Bowl. The NFL had the easy upper hand in the first two, as the Green Bay Packers defeated the Kansas City Chiefs and the Oakland Raiders, respectively.

In Super Bowl III, however, the AFL established itself as a league that could compete with the best. Led by the aforementioned Joe Namath, the New York Jets pulled off a huge upset against the Baltimore Colts, who had been favored by a whopping 18 points.

1970s: Rise in Popularity and the First Super Bowl Era Dynasties

The merger had now allowed for the NFL and AFL to be combined into one NFL. The Colts, Browns and Steelers of the NFL agreed to, with the 10 existing AFL teams, become the American Football Conference (AFC), while the remaining NFL teams were the National Football Conference (NFC).

It&aposs the 1970s where the NFL began to take shape into what it is today. Seattle and Tampa Bay were added as teams. The Boston Patriots became the New England Patriots. And the Super Bowl became a much bigger deal, thanks to several teams becoming dominating powerhouses, terrorizing the league and making the Super Bowl on multiple occasions.

From 1970-79, the Dallas Cowboys went to five Super Bowls, winning two. The Pittsburgh Steelers went to and won three Super Bowls (and a fourth in January of 1980). The Minnesota Vikings went toਏour Super Bowls - though they lost all four.

The Miami Dolphins also went to three straight Super Bowls and won two of them in the 1970s. Not as many as the previously mentioned team, but the Dolphins also did something none of those teams accomplished: the perfect season. A 14-0 regular season in 1972, two playoff wins to clinch the AFC and a Super Bowl win over Washington meant they were 17-0 with a championship. Only one team since has had an undefeated regular season they&aposre still the only undefeated championship team.

1980s-90s: USFL Competition, Free Agency and the Franchise Tag

The NFL was now an institution, and by the 80s the Super Bowl was regularly getting over 80 million television viewers. As such, it was time for some more millionaires to try and compete with it.

The United States Football League (USFL) lasted for three seasons, and perhaps could have lasted longer if not for its hubris. Beginning in 1983, the USFL played their games in the spring instead of the fall, and rosters boasted players such as future NFLers and Hall of Fame quarterbacks Jim Kelly and Steve Young.

But the owners, led by New Jersey Generals owner Donald Trump, made the decision to move their games to the fall in an attempt to directly compete with the NFL. A big part of this was filing an antitrust lawsuit against the NFL that alleged that the NFL had established a monopoly that pressured major television networks into not broadcasting fall USFL games.

The jury, after deliberation, found that the NFL did have a monopoly, but did not find it to be at fault for the USFL&aposs problem. As such, the USFL technically won its case but was awarded just one dollar of the $1.7 billion it sought. The league folded soon after.

The NFL, meanwhile, continued to thrive. The dynasties of the 70s were replaced by that of the San Francisco 49ers. The Chicago Bears and New York Giants, two of the oldest NFL franchises, used legendary defenses to get their first Super Bowl championships.

Another team of the 80s and 90s that thrived was the Denver Broncos, thanks to their star quarterback John Elway. Elway&aposs Broncos went to five Super Bowls, winning the last two. He was also an important part of what we know as modern free agency in football.򠫌ording to Sports Illustrated, when negotiations were going on to establish what free agency would look like, Broncos owner Pat Bowlen&aposs fear of losing his quarterback led to what is now known as the "franchise tag," where a team was permitted to choose one player per free agency season that they could "tag" and give a hefty one-year contract to - with the hopes of a long-term deal beyond that year getting finalized.

2000s: The Patriots Dynasty and the Goodell Era

The 2000s saw a dynasty that still exists in the NFL nearly two decades after their first Super Bowl victory - the New England Patriots.

The Patriots had been to just two Super Bowls prior to the 21st century, losing to the Bears in the 80s and the Packers in the 90s. Bill Belichick&aposs Patriots weren&apost expected to dominate at all, but an injury to starting QB Drew Bledsoe in 2001 led to second-year quarterback Tom Brady taking over. A solid year for the young Brady and a good defense led them to a massive upset over the St. Louis Rams in the Super Bowl that season Brady was named MVP of that Super Bowl.

Two years later, they won again. The year after that, they won again. Suddenly the Patriots were an undeniable dynasty, with three Super Bowl championships in four years. With Brady at the helm, Belichick created elite teams and developed a reputation as an all-time great coach. This culminated in the first ever undefeated 16-game season, which the Patriots achieved in 2007 thanks to a record-breaking year from Brady. But an upset by the New York Giants in Super Bowl 42 left them without a title to show for their effort.

Since 2001, the Patriots have been in਎ight Super Bowls, winning five.

The other big change for the NFL in the 2000s was at the commissioner&aposs office. In the middle of the decade, Commissioner Paul Tagliabue announced his retirement. In August of 2006, the NFL owners voted to make Roger Goodell, a longtime NFL employee, the new commissioner.

Goodell inherited a cultural and media juggernaut. In Tagliabue&aposs tenure, the NFL grew exponentially, and the one attempt at a new football league during that time, the XFL, was roundly mocked and lasted just one season. He was now commissioner of arguably the biggest professional sports league in America.

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Since Goodell took over, the NFL has continued to thrive, albeit with declining ratings in line with the decline of all television ratings. But his NFL has also been riddled with controversies and public relations nightmares. A few of those include:

  • The 2011 NFL lockout, the first labor dispute the league had since 1987. The lockout lasted 18 weeks.
  • The 2012 referee lockout, where a labor dispute led to the NFL starting the season with replacement referees. Blown calls throughout the first 3 weeks of the season embarrassed the league and energized contract negotiations that led to increased wages and a 401(k).
  • "Deflategate," a scandal about whether Tom Brady was aware of Patriots employees deflating footballs. The NFL suspended Brady forਏour games, a decision that got reversed by the U.S. District Court - and then reinstated by the U.S. Court of Appeals.
  • Punishments for domestic abuse allegations by NFL players that many deemed insufficient, stemming from a two-game suspension to Ravens running back Ray Rice after being charged with assault. When a graphic video of the assault surfaced, Rice was cut by the Ravens and indefinitely suspended by Goodell.
  • Goodell&apossਊnd the NFL owners&apos inability to address players kneeling during the National Anthem to protest police brutality in a way that did not make things more controversial, particularly when they voted on a policy requiring players to either stand for the anthem or star in the locker room without consulting the NFLPA. Not long after, the NFL announced that there would not be a new rule regarding the anthem.

Despite these controversies, the NFL remains a powerhouse in American sports.


The Birth of the National Football League - HISTORY

In the world today there is a lot of different kinds of sports. Most popular to us Americans is probably baseball, basketball, and football. The one thatpeople enjoy watching is probably football. People of all ages like to watch this game, mostly because of the incessant body contact. One will get excited when there is an unbelievable play or a spectacular hit. Football like Classic Rock got popular right when it started. It is an exciting game when it started and will remain exciting in the future. .

The game of football came from soccer. A man name Walter Camp from.

Yale University saw his college team playing soccer and the rest is history. In themid 1800s the first resembling present day football game was played. It was on November 6, 1869. McGill University from Montreal, Canada played against.

Universiti Harvard. Football was only play in the eastern United States untill itgot popular in 1880. It then spread all over the U.S.A. That"s why now there isthe National Football League.

In order to score points a team must advance the ball down the field. Thereare two main ways for a team to do that. Either by throwing or running the ball. A quarterback can throw the ball to a receiver that is down field. The quarterback is not the only passer. Anybody on the team can become the passer. A play that tells this is call the flick flicker. It is when the quarterback pitch the ball back to the runningback. He then feigns to throw, and draws all the defense to him. That makes a receiver open to throw to. Most of the running is done by the runningback. Running is not as effective as throwing, but if there is a opening he can run all the way. Running like throwing can be done by anyone.

In football there is three ways of scoring. A touchdown, field goal, and a safety. A touchdown is mostly scored by the offense. To score, a team needs to run or catch a pass over the opposing team"s goal line.


Liga Bola Sepak Negara

The National Football League can trace its history back to the late nineteenth century when Yale All-American guard William Heffelfinger was paid $500 to play against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. This makes Heffelfinger the first paid professional football player in the United States. Football remained mostly out of the national eye prior to the 1920s during the 1910s, American football was a regional sport with no formal league authority. One of the more prominent divisions was the Ohio League, which attracted acclaimed athletes including Jim Thorpe. As football became a more popular sport, attempts to form a national league began. When World War I began, the sport was sidelined. With many players entering into the armed forces, organizations either had to cut down on players or abandon the team altogether. Some teams decided to start drafting the remaining players who stayed stateside. This national recruiting of displaced players started the development of a national league. There were two main areas where larger, multi-state teams were focused: the Eastern Seaboard and the Midwestern region. Private businesses and individual communities began to sponsor these teams, seeing potential for a profitable market. As football rose in popularity, local teams became a source of pride for the businesses and towns.

The first major attempt to unify the various professional football teams occurred in 1920, with the formation of the American Professional Football Association. The league was founded in Canton, Ohio, where five of the teams originated. Founders organized the calendar into an eleven-game schedule with a champion declared at the end of each season, and also struck an agreement on player poaching. The league’s roster included: the Canton Bulldogs, the Cleveland Tigers, the Dayton Triangles, the Akron Professionals, the Rochester (NY) Jeffersons, the Rock Island Independents, the Muncie Flyers, the Decatur Staleys, the Chicago Cardinals, the Buffalo All-Americans, the Chicago Tigers, the Columbus Panhandles, the Detroit Heralds, and the Hammond Pros. The American Professional Football Association’s first president was Jim Thorpe, who played and coached for the Canton Bulldogs during the 1910s. Under Thorpe's leadership, the Bulldogs were the unofficial world champions in 1916, 1917, and 1919. His contributions to the game led him to become the highest-paid player in the league during its early years. Thorpe retired as a player from professional football in 1928 while he played for the Chicago Cardinals.

In 1922, the American Professional Football Association officially changed its name to the National Football League. In the league’s early decades, there was an inconsistent turnover of teams. Numerous communities attempted team sponsorship, but quickly realized that they could not cover the expenses required of a sponsor. Additionally, teams frequently moved, lured away by other communities that offered more lucrative financial deals. During this era in football history, Ohio became home to many different teams including:

· Canton Bulldogs (1920-1923, 1926)

· Cleveland Tigers (1920-1921)

· Akron Professionals (1920-1926)

· Dayton Triangles (1920-1929)

· Columbus Panhandles (1920-1922)

· Cincinnati Celts (1921-1921)

· Marion Oorang Indians (1922-1923)

· Columbus Tigers (1923-1924) (1926-1926)

· Cleveland Indians (1923-1923) (1931-1931)

· Cleveland Bulldogs (1924-1925) (1927-1927)

· Portsmouth Spartans (1930-1934)

· Cleveland Browns (1949-1996) (1999-present)

· Cincinnati Bengals (1968-present)

Because of Ohio's prominent role in professional football, the National Football Hall of Fame is located in Canton, Ohio, where the league began in 1920.


National Football League (Dixie Forever)

The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the Western Football Conference (WFC). The NFL is one of the five major professional sports leagues in North America and the highest professional level of American football in the world. The NFL's 18-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 18 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference (four division winners and two wild card teams) advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Union Bowl (called Yankee Bowl in the Confederate States), which is usually held in the last Sunday in January, and then the winner of the Dixie Bowl and the Yankee Bowl compete on the first Sunday in February which is played between the champions of the UFC and CFC.

The NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association (APFA) before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the Western Football League (WFL) in 1966, and the first Union Bowl was held at the end of that season the merger was completed in 1970. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance (67,591) of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States. The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top Five tally of the all-time most watched U.S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner, who has broad authority in governing the league.

The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with 13 (nine NFL titles before the Super Bowl era and four Super Bowl championships afterwards) the team with the most Super Bowl championships is the Pittsburgh Steelers with six. The current NFL champions are the Philadelphia Eagles, who defeated the New England Patriots in Super Bowl LII, their first Super Bowl championship after winning three NFL titles before the Super Bowl era.


The History of the American and National League, Part I

Baseball’s history is rich and complex, full of colorful characters, timeless moments and tremendous achievements. It is the story of racism and redemption, doctored balls and labor strikes, players and owners, victory and defeat. Just like the sport itself, baseball’s history has been both unpredictable and bound by cause-and-effect.

In order to appreciate where the sport of baseball is in the year 2008, we need to understand appreciate the past. In the coming weeks, I will provide a cursory overview of various aspects of baseball’s history, starting today with Expansion, Part I.

At the end of this series, I will provide some suggestions for books to read if you are interested. These posts will barely scratch the surface of what happened and why, and it behooves anyone truly interested in America’s national past time to dig into more depth.

NOTE: Part II can be found here.

The Origin of the National and American Leagues

Success breeds imitation. And throughout its history, baseball was awfully successful.

The National League was formed in 1876. Because this was successful, the American Association was created in 1881 to compete with the NL. In order to attract fans, the AA instituted several policies that the NL lacked: they played games on Sundays and they sold beer at the ballpark. They also undercut the NL, charging 25 cents for admission, rather than 50 cents. The AA also began to compete for players with the NL.

In 1884, the Union Association was formed, but only lasted one year. Then, in 1890, the Players League began, but also only lasted one year. However, the existence of the Players League had a residual effect on the longer-standing leagues: namely, the Players League contributed to the demise of the American Association in 1891. The AA had been consistently weaker than the NL during its ten-year existence, causing some of the stronger AA teams to make the jump over to the NL. The PL stole additional players from the AA and undercut its ticket prices, causing it to finally fold.

As the AA got weaker, the NL expanded. During the last three years of the AA’s existence, eight AA teams jumped to the NL. Four of those teams remain to this day: the Cardinals, Dodgers, Pirates and Reds. After the AA folded, the National League became a 12-team monopoly that lasted into the early 1900s.

By 1900, the 12-team circuit wasn’t working. Attendance was highly concentrated in only seven cities, and there were too many consistently bad teams, lessening excitement (and attendance) towards the end of the season. The owners got together and decided to reduce the league to eight teams. Thus, teams in Baltimore, Cleveland, Louisville and Washington were eliminated, leaving the following teams:

Boston Beaneaters, Brooklyn Superbas, Chicago Orphans, Cincinnati Reds, New York Giants, Philadelphia Phillies, Pittsburgh Pirates, and St Louis Perfectos.

When the NL reduced its teams, a minor league called the Western League saw an opportunity. In 1899, Bancroft Johnson, commissioner of the Western League, renamed his league the American League. In 1901 – the year after the NL contracted four teams – the American League removed itself from the National Agreement (the understanding between the National League and the various minor league circuits) and declared itself to be a Major League, alongside the National League. They also expanded, placing teams into three of the four cities that had lost their NL team – Baltimore, Cleveland, and Washington – as well as placing some teams into cities that already had an NL team – Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia. The original American League consisted of the following teams:

Baltimore Orioles, Boston Americans, Chicago White Stockings, Cleveland Blues, Detroit Tigers, Milwaukee Brewers, Philadelphia Athletics, and Washington Senators.

The National League was furious. They tried to push aside the upstart AL and regain their profitable monopoly. However, it soon became apparent that the AL wasn’t going anywhere, and, in true American fashion, the NL realized that if they couldn’t beat the AL, they should join them. In 1903 the two leagues signed a new version of the National Agreement, under which they agreed that they would each be a major league, and their champions would play each other in the World Series (a fantastic marketing and profit opportunity for the two leagues).

Thus, starting in 1903, the United States featured two eight-team baseball leagues: the American and National Leagues, whose winners would play each other in the World Series. And that remained intact for 50 years.

Bill Veeck would change all of that.

In 1951, Veeck purchased the St Louis Browns (originally the Milwaukee Brewers, they moved to St Louis and were re-named the Browns in 1902). Veeck, the former owner of the Cleveland Indians, was known for his various stunts. Perhaps his best-known stunt involved signing Eddie Gaedel, who was three-feet, seven inches tall. Gaedel had one at bat in his career, during which he donned a uniform with the number “1/8” and wore elf-life slippers with the ends turned up. Gaedel walked on four straight pitches, and was promptly replaced by a pinch runner. Infuriated at the affront to the sanctity of the game, American League president Will Harridge immediately voided Gaedel’s contract, leaving him with a perfect 1.000 career on-base percentage (as a direct result of this incident, the commissioner of baseball must now approve all player contracts). Needless to say, Veeck was not held in high esteem by the other owners.

When he purchased the Browns, Veeck believed that the city of St. Louis was too small for two teams, and he hoped to push out the struggling Cardinals. However, the Cardinals were soon bought by August Busch Jr., the president of Anheuser-Busch, who announced that he had no intentions of moving the Cardinals. Therefore, Veeck decided that he wanted to move the Browns.

Veeck first tried to move back to the Browns’ original city, Milwaukee, but he was blocked by the other owners. He then tried to move to Baltimore, but was again blocked by the owners. Lacking leverage, he was forced to sell the team to a Baltimore-based group. With Veeck out of the picture, the other owners approved the Browns’ move to Baltimore (foreshadowing a contentious move of a football Browns team to Baltimore decades later) in 1954. The period of stability in the AL and NL was over.

In 1950, real-estate businessman Walter O’Malley acquired a majority stake in the Brooklyn Dodgers. Before long, he began to look for an improvement over the Dodgers home, Ebbets Field, which was built in 1913 and had become old and dilapidated by the 1950s. New York City Construction Coordinator Robert Moses wanted O’Malley to use a site in Flushing Meadows, Queens, for his new ballpark. Moses envisioned a city-built, city-owned park, but O’Malley wanted nothing of the sort. When it became clear that O’Malley was not going to find any suitable land in Brooklyn, he began looking elsewhere.

World War II had been over for less than a decade when O’Malley purchased the Dodgers. The war had been the first to involve an air force, as technology had become sophisticated enough to build a fleet of fighter jets. It wasn’t long until the technology allowed commercial flights as well. Sure enough, in 1952, the first commercial jet – the de Havilland Comet – was introduced. The Boeing 707 was introduced not long after, and was the first widely successful commercial jet, signaling the beginning of air travel in the United States.

Thus, it is not a coincidence that talk of expanding baseball westward began to pick up steam after the war. Officials in Los Angeles had been actively lobbying for a major league team, and with the advent of the jet, transcontinental travel was cheaper and faster than ever before. When it became known that O’Malley was looking for land outside of Brooklyn, Los Angeles quickly offered him a plot on which to build a park.

However, it would be impractical to move only one team across the country. If Major League baseball was truly going to expand out west, they would need at least two teams. At the same time that O’Malley was offered land in Los Angeles, New York Giants owner Horace Stoneham was looking for a replacement for his stadium, the Polo Grounds (which had opened in 1890 and was extensively renovated in 1911 after a fire). Stoneham also began to consider options outside of New York – the Giants had a minor league team in Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Stoneham considered moving his Giants to Minnesota. However, O’Malley then approached Stoneham with an idea: why not move west?

The mayor of San Francisco was excited about the opportunity to have a major league team, and provided Stoneham with the necessary land for a ballpark. It was settled: O’Malley and Stoneham would move their teams to Los Angeles and San Francisco, respectively. The Los Angeles Dodgers and San Francisco Giants met on opening day of 1958 in Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, signaling the beginning of a new and busy era of expansion and movement in baseball.

The Continental League

New York State Attorney William Shea was not happy about losing two of his state’s three teams to California. Shea tried to get another Major League team in New York, either via expansion or by moving an existing team. However, his efforts were to no avail. Then, in November of 1958, he had an idea: create a third Major League, the Continental League. He named Branch Rickey president (to give the league some credibility), and the Continental League was formally announced in 1959. Teams were going to be created in Denver, Houston, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Toronto, and, of course, New York City. Three additional teams were expected, thus making it an eight-team league, a la the AL and NL.

As you might imagine, Major League baseball was not happy with this idea. They had enjoyed a very prosperous monopoly for over 50 years besides, history had shown that three major leagues didn’t work. Major League baseball came up with a compromise: it announced that for the first time since the American League had joined the National League back in 1903, it would expand. Both the AL and NL decided to add two new teams to their ranks, with priority given to cities that did not already have a team. However, the National League also extended an invitation to the owners of New York’s Continental League team to join the National League instead. When they accepted, Shea finally got his wish, and it more or less officially killed the Continental League.

The American League expanded in 1961, adding the Washington Senators (the previous Senators team had moved to Minnesota and were re-named the Minnesota Twins in 1961) and Anaheim Angels, giving baseball more of a presence out west.

The National League expanded in 1962, adding the Houston Colt .45s along with the New York Mets (incidentally, the Mets paid homage to their New York predecessors with an orange “NY” from the Giants logo on a Dodger-blue cap) .
There were also several teams that moved in the 1950s, besides the St. Louis Browns. In 1953, the Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee and in 1955, the Philadelphia Athletics moved to Kansas City. As the country expanded west and small cities grew larger, so did major league baseball expand and grow as well.

At the beginning of the 1962 season, Major League baseball looked like this:


The Birth of the National Football League - HISTORY

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General Comments

The images for historical NFL helmets illustrated on the various pages for each division are based heavily on information derived from one particular web site, 'Mike Stanhope's NFL Helmet page' (site appears to no longer exist as of 2020) and were mostly done in the period 1999- 2000. The dates of use for each helmet and the accompanying comments are also derived primarily from this source, which appears to have been very carefully researched and which I believe to be highly accurate, though I have made a number of additions through the years and have found a small number of apparent errors. Helmets for teams that have changed names or have been relocated are placed in the section for the franchise's current name (i.e, the Houston Oilers helmets are placed in the Tennessee Titans section on the AFC South page), with the exception of the Cleveland Browns.

Please click on the links below to see the page for each NFL division.

NFL History

The links below will open new browser windows presenting lists of NFL Super Bowl, Conference, and Divisional champions in "Helmet Project" format. The Super Bowl and Conference champions are listed since the first Super Bowl game the Divisional champions are listed back to 1970, the first year of the NFL's six-division format and of the AFL-NFL merger. The years listed refer to the football season in question, rather than the dates when the championship game was played (for example, "2017" is listed for the Philadelphia Eagles' recent Super Bowl victory (played in 2018), which occurred at the end of the 2017 football season).

After careful consideration, I elected to display the current helmet for each team on these pages, rather than the one used by the team during the year listed, to more clearly illustrate the ebb and flow of power among the teams through the years. The use of multiple helmets for each team in such a display would interfere with the eye's ability to grasp the underlying patterns, such as the prolonged dominance of a small number of teams in the 1970s, and the emergence of great parity since about 1990. Besides, you can always see what helmet design team X wore in year XXXX on the divisional pages at the links further up on this page.

The Pro Bowl

At the end of each NFL season since 1939, the league has held an exhibition game featuring the players deemed to have excelled during the previous season. Prior to the 1970 football season, the Pro Bowl was a game between teams representing the league's Eastern and Western Conferences from 1970 to 2012, and from 2016 to present the two teams have represented the American Conference and the National Conference. From 2013 through 2015, the Pro Bowl was contested by two teams drafted by Hall of Fame NFL players, without regard to conference or NFL team (for example, the 2013 game was "Team [Jerry] Rice" vs "Team [Deion] Sanders").

Apparently from the game played January 29, 1979 to present (including the "non-conferenced" teams of the 2013 - 2015 years), the players selected for the Pro Bowl game have worn the helmets of their respective NFL teams during the game, but prior to 1979, a single helmet design was used by all players on each team. Six pairs of helmet designs used during the period 1960 through 1978 have been identified (those shown below). Some of the discrepancies related to the dates of use of these designs may be due to the fact that the Pro Bowl game played in January of Year X is often referred to as the "(Year X-1) Pro Bowl".


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