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Pertempuran Gettysburg, 2 Julai, 3.30 p.m


Hari kedua pertempuran Gettysburg, 2 Julai, 3.30 petang

Peta menunjukkan hari kedua pertempuran Gettysburg, 2 Julai, 3.30 petang

Peta diambil dari Pertempuran dan Pemimpin Perang Saudara: III: Berundur dari Gettysburg, hlm.299

Gettysburg: Pencerobohan Terakhir, Allen C. Guelzo. Satu akaun kempen Gettysburg yang sangat baik, yang digambarkan oleh pilihan akaun saksi mata yang luar biasa. Berfokus pada tindakan komandan individu, dari Meade dan Lee hingga komandan rejimen, dengan fokus pada komandan korps dan aktiviti dan sikap mereka. Disokong oleh banyak akaun dari rantai komando yang lebih jauh dan dari orang awam yang terlibat dalam pertempuran. [baca ulasan penuh]

Bintang dalam Kursus mereka: Kempen Gettysburg, Shelby Foote, 304 halaman. Diteliti dengan baik dan ditulis oleh salah seorang sejarawan terkenal dalam Perang Saudara, karya ini diambil dari karya berjilidnya yang lebih panjang dalam perang, tetapi tidak menderita dari itu.

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Pertempuran Gettysburg

Segera setelah kemenangannya di Chancellorsville, Jeneral Lee menyiapkan Tentera Virginia Utara untuk kempen yang akan datang. Dia menyusun semula infanteri menjadi tiga kumpulan tiga bahagian masing-masing dan menempatkannya di bawah komando Leftenan Jeneral James Longstreet, Richard S. Ewell, dan A. Powell Hill. (Sebuah pasukan Gabungan berjumlah kira-kira 20,000 pasukan infanteri, 2.000 artileri yang terdiri daripada 6,000 orang pasukan infanteri, dan sebuah brigade 1.500.) Bahagian pasukan berkuda tetap berada di bawah komando Jeneral Jenderal James E. B. Stuart, dan dia masing-masing memberikan batalion artileri pendukung. Tentera Virginia Utara berjumlah sekitar 75,000 pegawai dan orang, hampir 10.000 daripadanya berkuda.

Selepas kekalahannya di Chancellorsville, Tentara Jeneral Hooker dari Potomac kembali ke kedudukannya di dekat Fredericksburg dan bersiap untuk dorongan baru ke arah Richmond. Lee tetap mempertahankan inisiatif yang diperoleh di Chancellorsville, dan pada 6 Jun melancarkan kempennya sendiri yang bercita-cita tinggi. Kerana dia tidak dapat melihat apa-apa yang dapat diperoleh dari pertempuran lain di daerah Fredericksburg, dia memutuskan untuk melakukan tindakan berani yang akan memindahkan tempat permusuhan di sebelah utara Sungai Potomac. Sekiranya ini dapat dilakukan, itu mungkin mengganggu rancangan kempen Federal untuk musim ini, menyingkirkan pasukan Persekutuan dari Lembah Shenandoah, dan memberinya kesempatan untuk meraih kemenangan yang menentukan bagi Konfederasi.

"BEBAN CAVALRY," ILUSTRASI OLEH EDWIN FORBES (BL)

Meninggalkan Hill's Corps untuk menjaga penyeberangan Sungai Rappahannock di Fredericksburg, Lee memindahkan Kor Ewell dan Longstreet ke barat dan utara ke daerah Culpeper di mana banyak pasukan berkuda Stuart berkumpul untuk perarakan ke utara. Di sana pada 9 Jun, dalam mematuhi perintah Hooker untuk "membubarkan dan memusnahkan" pasukan Gabungan di kawasan itu, Kavaleri Corpus dari Tentera Potomac mengejutkan dan hampir mengalahkan penunggang kuda Konfederasi dalam pertempuran Brandy Station, pertempuran berkuda terbesar perang. Pertempuran itu adalah seri yang diturunkan oleh Federals dari lapangan, meninggalkan Stuart untuk merawat kebanggaannya yang terluka. Jeneral Alfred Pleasonton, komandan pasukan berkuda Union, bagaimanapun, telah mengesahkan bahawa Konfederasi berkuatkuasa di daerah Culpeper, dan penunggang kuda Union telah mengetahui bahawa mereka dapat "mempertikaikan keunggulan yang selama ini dituntut oleh, dan mengakui kepada Gabungan pasukan berkuda. "

HOOKER JOSEPH UMUM UTAMA, PEMANDU, SENI POTOMAC. DITERIMA PADA 28 JUN 1863 (GNMP)

Pada 10 Jun, Ewell's Corps meninggalkan Culpeper ke Lembah Shenandoah. Empat hari kemudian, pasukan itu menangkap pasukan pengawal Union di Winchester dan sejumlah besar bekalan di sana dan di Martinsburg. Ewell's Corps sampai di Potomac berhampiran Hagerstown pada 15 Jun. Semasa Ewell mendekati Potomac, Longstreet's Corps bergerak ke timur laut Blue Ridge ke celah-celah gunung di sebelah barat Washington. Di sana ia dan pasukan berkuda Stuart menjaga Gabungan kanan dan belakang ketika baki tentera Lee bergerak ke utara. Pada pertengahan bulan Jun juga Hill's Corps bergerak dari Fredericksburg menuju Front Royal dan Shenandoah Valley di seberang. Rancangan Lee untuk membuang teater operasi dari Virginia berjalan lancar.

Jeneral Hooker tahu bahawa tentera Lee bergerak ke utara tetapi tidak dapat memakbulkan niat atau objektif Lee. Ketika menjadi jelas bahawa hanya Hill's Corps yang tinggal di Fredericksburg, Hooker menyarankan agar dia dibenarkan menyerang dan maju ke arah Richmond. Walaupun cadangan ini memiliki beberapa kelebihan pada waktu itu, Lincoln menolaknya, dengan memperhatikan bahawa tentera Lee adalah "titik objektif pasti" nya. Oleh itu, Hooker mengalihkan Tentera Potomac ke kawasan di sebelah barat Washington dan selatan Potomac, di mana ia dapat menghadapi kekuatan utama Lee dan meliputi Washington. Usaha Hooker untuk mengetahui lokasi tentera Lee di sebelah barat Washington dengan mengirim kavaleri dan siasatan infanteri melalui celah gunung di sana mengakibatkan perkelahian yang kuat dengan orang-orang Stuart di Aldie, Middleburg, dan Upperville, tetapi mereka memberikan sedikit maklumat dan tidak mengganggu pergerakan Lee dengan serius.

Pasukan tentera berkuda Ewell dan Brigadier Jeneral Albert G. Jenkins berkuda menyeberangi Potomac pada 15 Jun dan menuju ke utara Lembah Cumberland ke Hagerstown dan Chambersburg dalam serangan raksasa, menyapu negara itu untuk bekalan. Di Chambersburg, Ewell berkaki satu membagi kekuatannya, menghantar jeneral Jeneral Jubal A. Bahagian awal di timur ke Gettysburg, York, dan Sungai Susquehanna di seberang. Sementara itu, Ewell terus ke utara menuju Carlisle dan menuju Harrisburg dengan pembahagian dari Maj. Gens. Robert E. Rodes dan Edward Johnson. Pada 29 Jun pasukan Early mencapai Sungai Susquehanna di Wrightsville, dan bahagian Rodes mengancam Harrisburg. Pada masa ini, kumpulan Hill dan Longstreet telah menyeberangi Potomac pada 24 dan 25 Jun dan sampai di kawasan Chambersburg pada 27hb. Mereka menduduki Chambersburg dan Cashtown Pass di atas Gunung Selatan di sebelah timur.

Pada 25 Jun, setelah mengetahui bahawa pasukan Lee telah menyeberangi Potomac, Hooker memerintahkan Tentera Potomac dari Virginia ke bahagian Maryland antara Frederick dan sungai. Sementara itu, perintah Persekutuan lain di wilayah terancam berpakaian untuk memenuhi ancaman Gabungan, dan Gabenor Andrew Curtin dari Pennsylvania berusaha mengatur milisi Pennsylvania untuk mempertahankan Harrisburg dan perkara penting lain di Negara Keystone.


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LEE INVADES PENNSYLVANIA, 3 JUN 30 JUN 1863
Pada 3 Jun 1863, Tentera Virginia Utara mula bergerak ke barat untuk menyeberangi Blue Ridge Mountains dan memperoleh Lembah Shenandoah. Pada saat Jeneral Hooker mengetahui tujuan Lee, tentera Gabungan telah memasuki lembah dan bergerak ke utara untuk menyeberangi Potomac dan menyerang Maryland dan Pennsylvania. Union Army of the Potomac mundur dari barisan Sungai Rappahannock dan mula berbaris ke utara untuk memintas tentera Lee.

Setelah melintasi Potomac, Lee terputus hubungan dengan Stuart dan banyak pasukan berkuda Confederate. Dia telah menginstruksikan jenderal itu untuk menjaga lorong gunung dengan sebahagian penunggangnya selama musuh berada di sebelah selatan Potomac dan menyeberangi sungai itu dengan selebihnya untuk memeriksa sebelah kanan Ewell. Stuart melihat bahawa pasukannya menjaga laluan, tetapi dia berusaha untuk sampai ke kanan Ewell, bukan dengan jalan langsung berhampiran pergunungan, tetapi dengan memimpin tiga brigade terbaiknya antara tentera Union dan Washington. Stuart berharap tindakan seperti itu dapat menimbulkan kekacauan di kalangan musuh dan menghilangkan noda Brandy Station dari reputasinya. Tetapi perjudiannya gagal pasukan Union bergerak dan menghalangnya untuk mencapai sebelah kanan Ewell. Oleh itu, ketiga-tiga brigade yang salah itu menyeberangi Potomac di Rowser's Ford dan menunggang ke utara melalui Rockville, Westminster, dan Hanover ke Carlisle, sama sekali tidak bersentuhan dengan Jeneral Lee dan tentera utama dan tidak memberikan maklumat dan pemeriksaan penting bagi kejayaannya. Kegagalan Stuart untuk menutup hak tentera Lee dan memberinya maklumat mengenai musuh adalah salah satu kesalahan Gabungan utama dalam kempen Gettysburg.

JAM UMUM UTAMA. E. B. STUART, KOMANDER, BAHAGIAN CAVALRY, ARMY VIRGINIA UTARA. (GNMP)

GEORGE UMUM UTAMA G. MEADE (SEATED, CENTRE), KOMANDER, ARMY OF POTOMAC, & amp STAF. (LC)

Pada awal 28 Jun, ketika Tentara Potomac berkonsentrasi di dekat Frederick, Maryland, seorang utusan dari Jabatan Perang tiba dengan perintah untuk melepaskan Jeneral Hooker dari komando tentera itu dan menggantikannya dengan Jeneral Jeneral George G. Meade, komandan Kesatuan Kelima Kor. Hooker dengan cepat menawarkan pengunduran dirinya pada 27, dan Presiden Lincoln menerimanya dengan bersungguh-sungguh. Meade terkejut dengan pelantikannya dan enggan menerimanya. Sedikit sebanyak jika ada orang Amerika yang memikul tanggungjawab yang begitu besar terhadap mereka pada masa yang genting ini. Namun, Meade, seorang askar profesional yang berkebolehan sepenuhnya dan memiliki kewajiban yang kuat, memikul beban dan mengambil langkah segera untuk menggerakkan tenteranya ke utara di depan yang luas untuk membantu Harrisburg sambil meliputi Washington dan Baltimore.

Pada petang 28 Jun, Jeneral Lee, yang berada di Chambersburg, mengetahui dari seorang perisik bahawa Tentera Potomac, yang sekarang berada di bawah Jeneral Meade, telah menyeberangi Potomac dan berada di kawasan Frederick. Dia segera memutuskan untuk memusatkan tenteranya di sebelah timur pergunungan untuk menahan tentera Union di sana dan menghantar penunggangnya ke Jeneral Ewell di Carlisle dengan perintah untuk mengembalikan pasukannya sekaligus ke daerah Gettysburg-Cashtown. Ewell, yang hendak mencuba penangkapan Harrisburg, menghentikan operasi itu dan memerintahkan Jenderal Early di York, Pennsylvania, untuk mengembalikan bahagiannya ke kawasan perhimpunan tanpa berlengah. Sementara itu, Ewell menghantar divisi Johnson dan kereta wagonnya kembali ke Chambersburg dan memulakan dengan pembahagian Rodes pada laluan langsung menuju Gettysburg.


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SITUASI 30 JUN 1863, SETIAP PERTANDINGAN
Tentera Virginia Utara berusaha menumpukan perhatian di dekat Cashtown untuk bersiap sedia untuk bertempur. Hanya empat dari sembilan bahagian tentera yang berada di sebelah timur pergunungan. Tentera Potomac bergerak ke utara dari Frederick di sepanjang hampir tiga puluh batu depan. Bahagian berkuda Buford's Union menduduki Gettysburg pada waktu petang, dan Reynolds 1st Army Corps berkhemah lima batu di selatan bandar. Baki tentera secara beransur-ansur bergerak ke arah Gettysburg.

Pada 29 Jun, Mayor Jeneral Henry Heth bahagian Hill's Corps menyeberangi South Mountain melalui Cashtown Pass ke dusun Cashtown di dasar timur gunung. Pada 30 Jun, Heth mengirim brigade ke timur sejauh lapan batu ke Gettysburg untuk mencari bekalan, terutama kasut yang dia dengar ada di bandar. Ketika berhampiran Gettysburg, Gabungan melihat pasukan berkuda Union yang cukup besar dan kembali ke Cashtown tanpa bertengkar. Pada 1 Julai Jeneral Hill mengirim divisi Heth, diikuti oleh Jenderal Jeneral Dorsey Pender, ke Gettysburg dalam pengintaian.

HENRY UMUM UTAMA HETH (GNMP)

Pasukan yang dilihat berhampiran Gettysburg pada 30 Jun adalah pasukan berkuda Jeneral John Buford bahagian Tentara Potomac. Ketika tentera itu bergerak ke utara dari kawasan Frederick, pasukan Buford memeriksa depan kirinya, mengumpulkan maklumat mengenai tentera Lee untuk Jeneral Meade dan untuk Jeneral John E. Reynolds, komandan Union First Corps. Buford, seorang pegawai berkuda yang sangat baik, telah sampai ke Gettysburg dengan dua dari tiga brigade. Dia mempostingnya di sebuah lengkungan di barat dan utara bandar yang meliputi jalan-jalan yang mungkin dihampiri oleh Gabungan.

Gettysburg pada tahun 1863 adalah sebuah bandar dengan kira-kira 2.400 orang. Ia berada di tengah-tengah lahan pertanian & # 151a selimut bucolic dusun, ladang bijirin, padang rumput, dan banyak kayu. Landskapnya bergelombang antara rabung utara-selatan yang rendah kadang-kadang dihubungkan ke bukit granit yang sepi, dan Rock Creek bersempadan dengan bandar di sebelah timur. Gettysburg adalah tempat duduk daerah di Adams County, dan ia dapat memiliki Pennsylvania College dan seminari Lutheran. Di samping itu, ia adalah pusat rangkaian jalan raya dengan jalan berpusing yang menuju ke barat ke Chambersburg, timur ke York, dan tenggara ke Baltimore. Lapan jalan lain menuju ke Harrisburg, Carlisle, Emmitsburg, Taneytown, Hagerstown, Hanover, dan tempat-tempat yang lebih rendah di dekatnya. Sebuah landasan kereta api membentang ke timur ke Persimpangan Hanover dan ke Baltimore. Sebuah tempat tidur kereta api telah dibina berhampiran Chambersburg Pike di sebelah barat kota, tetapi ia tidak mempunyai landasan.

Tentera Darat Potomac berjumlah kira-kira 95,000 pegawai dan anggota tentera, semua sukarelawan. Ia memiliki tujuh kumpulan infanteri dan artileri, satu kumpulan pasukan berkuda dan artileri, dan cadangan artileri dengan dua puluh satu bateri. Korpsnya jauh lebih kecil daripada korps Gabungan dan rata-rata 14,000 pegawai dan masing-masing masing-masing terdiri dari 9,800 hingga 17,000. Terdapat dua puluh dua bahagian, dua atau tiga per korps, dibahagikan kepada lima puluh sembilan brigade. Brigade infanteri setanding dengan brigade Gabungan, dengan kekuatan rata-rata sekitar 1,500 pegawai dan lelaki. Perpecahan kesatuan, bagaimanapun, biasanya lebih kecil daripada pasukan tentera utara Virginia.

AMBROSE AM LIEUTENANT P. HILL, PEMANDU, CORPS ARMY 3RD, ARMY VIRGINIA UTARA (GNMP)

Tentera Meade telah bergerak ke utara dari Frederick di depan yang luas, mencari Gabungan dan meliputi Baltimore dan Washington. Pada 30 Jun, sebelah kiri tentera Meade berada di dekat Emmitsburg, Maryland, dan sebelah kanannya kira-kira 25 batu di sebelah timur berhampiran Manchester. Ketika Lee memerintahkan konsentrasi di dekat Gettysburg, Meade bersiap sedia untuk membuat posisi bertahan di sepanjang Pipe Creek di sebelah selatan garis Mason-Dixon. Peristiwa 1 Julai adalah untuk mengubah rancangan setiap komandan.


Pertempuran Gettysburg

Setelah teguran Heth, ada jeda dalam pertempuran ketika pasukan tambahan, biru dan kelabu, tiba di lapangan. Bahagian Jeneral Dorsey Pender mengikuti Heth ke lapangan, dan ketika Hill membentuk divisi Heth di Herr Ridge untuk serangan petang, dia menyelaraskan divisi Pender di belakangnya. Kira-kira jam 11:30 A.M. Bahagian Abner Doubleday di bawah komando sementara Brig. Jeneral Thomas Rowley tiba. Jeneral Doubleday meletakkan Briged Pertama, yang kemudian diperintahkan oleh Kolonel Chapman Biddle, di sebelah kiri Iron Brigade untuk menutup jurang luas antara Herbst's Woods dan Fairfield Road. Dia memasang brigade Kolonel Roy Stone di jurang antara hutan dan pike. Doubleday meletakkan bahagian korps yang tinggal, iaitu Brig. Jeneral John C. Robinson, dalam simpanan di seminari. Union Elevenh Corps mengikuti First Corps ke padang di Jalan Taneytown dan Emmitsburg. Mejar Jeneral Oliver O. Howard, komandannya, yang kehilangan satu tahun sebelumnya, telah melaju ke depan dan mengintai kawasan Gettysburg dari bumbung sebuah bangunan di tengah kota ketika dia mengetahui bahawa Reynolds telah terbunuh dan bahawa dia memimpin pasukan Union di lapangan. Howard segera mengirim pengiriman meminta bantuan dan mengambil langkah-langkah untuk meneruskan pertempuran. Dia mengirim pasukannya yang pertama untuk tiba, iaitu Jeneral Carl Schurz, sebelah utara kota yang bermaksud bahawa ia harus mengambil kedudukan di Oak Ridge di sebelah kanan Kor Pertama. Dia menghantar Brig. Pembahagian Jeneral Francis C. Barlow untuk menyokong Schurz. Dia meletakkan bahagian belakangnya, iaitu Brig. Jeneral Adolph von Steinwehr, dan dua bateri artileri di Cemetery Hill untuk menjadikan bukit itu sebagai titik perhimpunan sekiranya pasukan Union tidak dapat memegang jawatan mereka di luar bandar sehingga bantuan tiba. Dia berharap bahawa Union Twelfth Corps dapat menolongnya dalam waktu yang singkat tetapi tahu bahawa pasukan lain tidak dapat datang sehingga lewat hari.

DOUBLEDAY AMNOR UTAMA (USAMHI)

KOD ROBERT UMUM BRIGADIER (GNMP)

Sementara itu dua bahagian Ewell's Corps, yang berada di Carlisle dan York, mendekati Gettysburg dari utara. Bahagian Rodes berbaris di Carlisle Road, tetapi membiarkannya maju ke Oak Ridge untuk tiba di padang di sebelah kiri Hill's Corps. Bahagian awal bergerak ke arah bandar di Harrisburg Road. Howard dan Doubleday mengetahui pendekatan mereka dari pasukan berkuda Buford yang menjaga jalan di utara bandar.

Bahagian Rodes dan batalion artileri Letnan Kolonel Thomas H. Carter sampai di Oak Hill sebelum pasukan Schurz dapat mendudukinya. Ketika Doubleday mengetahui pendekatan Rodes, dia menghantar bahagian Robinson dari simpanannya untuk menghadapi Rodes dari Seminary Ridge di Jalan Mummasburg. Bahagian Schurz, yang tidak dapat mengambil posisi di ketinggian yang sekarang diduduki oleh Rodes, masuk ke posisi menghadap ke utara di dataran utara kota di belakang kanan Kor Pertama. Ewell, yang bersama Rodes, menafsirkan pergerakan ini sebagai serangan dan pembatalan perintah Jeneral Lee untuk tidak melakukan pertunangan umum. Dia memerintahkan Rodes untuk menyerang pasukan Union di depannya.

Lee telah mendengar tembakan meriam pertempuran pagi itu ketika dia melaju ke timur melalui Cashtown Pass. Dia bergegas ke lapangan dan sampai di garis Hill tepat pada waktunya untuk menyaksikan serangan Ewell. Walaupun dia ingin mengumpulkan tenteranya sebelum terlibat dalam "pertunangan umum", pertempuran itu telah dimulakan. Dia memberi izin kepada Hill untuk bergabung dengan Ewell dalam serangan itu, masih mengetahui keberadaan hanya bahagian Tentara Potomac yang dapat dilihatnya di depannya.

AWAL JUBAH UMUM AWAL (USAMHI)

Rodes telah membentuk bahagiannya dalam dua barisan Brig. Briged Jeneral Alfred Iverson berada di bukit berhampiran lokasi semasa Peringatan Damai Cahaya Abadi. Kolonel Edward A. O'Neal berada di lereng ke kiri, dan Brig. Jeneral George Doles terbentang ke dataran di sebelah timur. Brig. Gens. Briged Junius Daniel dan Stephen Dodson Ramseur menduduki barisan sokongan. Rodes memerintahkan mereka untuk menyerang. Iverson dan O'Neal mengarahkan kemajuan mereka dengan buruk. Pasukan O'Neal jatuh sebelum api kanan Kor Pertama di sepanjang Jalan Mummasburg dan pasukan kiri Kor Kesebelas. Orang-orang Robinson kemudian menghadap ke barat menuju pasukan Iverson yang bergerak membabi buta di tempat terbuka di depan mereka. Mereka mengejutkan Konfederasi dengan kereta api, membunuh, mencederakan, atau menangkap 800 orang Caroline Utara, dan menghentikan serangan itu. Seorang saksi mata menulis: Garis Iverson ditunjukkan oleh deretan orang mati dan cedera yang darahnya mengikuti jejak mereka dengan noda merah. "Rodes tetap bertahan, dan mengirim pasukan sokongannya terhadap garis Robinson.

Pada kira-kira jam 2:30 petang, ketika bahagian Rodes menyerang dari utara, Lee memberi izin kepada Heth untuk memperbaharui serangannya dari barat yang disokong oleh tembakan artileri di Herr Ridge. Ini menjadi salah satu pergaduhan perang yang paling mematikan. Walaupun kedudukan Union di McPherson Ridge dan di McPherson's Woods adalah kedudukan yang baik dalam banyak aspek, barisan Gabungan yang lebih panjang dapat bekerja di sekitar Union yang ditinggalkan ketika menghantam kedudukan Union dari depan "dengan pantas, berteriak seperti syaitan. " Briged Besi dalam kedudukannya yang maju di hutan rentan di sebelah kirinya dan menekan kuat di bahagian depannya. Anak buahnya bertukar tembakan dengan pasukan Brig. Jeneral James Johnston Pertigrew "sehingga garis-garis mencurahkan voli satu sama lain pada jarak tidak lebih dari 20 langkah." Brigade Besi jatuh kembali, berhenti dan membentuk tiga garisan di hutan dan berhenti lagi di ladang terbuka sebelum mengambil kedudukan terakhir di hadapan seminari. Brigade Biddle di kirinya menentang tegas dari tanah terbuka di garis rabung sehingga rejimennya terkeluar dan merosot dan tidak lagi dapat menahan garis depan ini. Briged Stone of Pennsylvanians, yang menghadap ke barat dan utara sepanjang pike, diserang oleh orang-orang Heth dari barat dan oleh pasukan Rodes, yang menyerang dari utara "dengan paduan teriakan hebat."


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1 JULAI 1863, SELEPAS
Union 1st Corps telah mengambil posisi untuk mempertahankan pendekatan barat ke Gettysburg, sementara sebahagian dari Corps ke-11 membentuk utara kota. Howard membentuk cadangan di Cemetery Hill. Pasukan gabungan berkumpul di Gettysburg dari barat, utara dan timur laut, Dari jam 1:30 petang hingga 3:30 P.M. mereka akan menyerang pertahanan Union dalam pertempuran berdarah, memaksa kedua korps Union untuk berundur ke Tanah Perkuburan dan Culp's Hills.
Kesetiaan terhadap tugas, kebanggaan, keberanian, dan disiplin menempatkan orang-orang ini ke posisi mereka ketika mereka dengan mudah melarikan diri dari lapangan.

Bahagian Heth, khususnya brigade Pettigrew, mengetuai serangan itu dan menjatuhkan hukuman yang dijatuhkan oleh para pembela Union dengan murah hati. Korban Rejimen North Carolina ke-26 menceritakan tekad Gabungan dalam pertarungan ini: empat belas lelaki ditembak ketika membawa warnanya dan kolonel dan lebih daripada separuh dari rejimen 800 orang jatuh. Di sisi Union, Rejimen Brigade Besi Michigan ke-24 kehilangan 363 dari 496 yang terlibat dalam pertarungan hari ini, 151 Pennsylvania Brigade Biddle 337 dari 467. Kesetiaan, tugas, kebanggaan, keberanian, dan disiplin menahan orang-orang ini kepada mereka jawatan apabila mereka dengan mudah melarikan diri dari lapangan. Kelakuan seperti itu adalah kebiasaan pada hari itu.

Setelah orang-orang Heth membersihkan pasukan McPherson's Ridge of Union, bahagian Pender melewatinya dan mendorong serangan terhadap pasukan Persekutuan yang sedang bersatu dengan baterinya di belakang payu dara di depan bangunan seminari. Kolonel Abner Perrin dari Carolinians Selatan dan Brig. Jeneral Alfred M. Scales's North Carolinians mendorong serangan ke rumah terhadap sisa-sisa Kor Pertama dan kira-kira dua puluh senjatanya. Itu adalah urusan berdarah & # 151Perrin menulis bahawa pasukannya bergerak dengan berani ke hadapan melawan "api musket yang paling merosakkan yang pernah saya hadapi." Pasukan Scales, lebih dekat dengan pike, menerima tembakan tabung yang hebat di sayap kiri dan musketry dan tabung dari depan sehingga setelah mereka mengusir Federals dari permatang, Scales mendapati bahawa "hanya pasukan di sana-sini yang menandakan tempat di mana rejimen telah berehat. "

Sementara itu, serangan salah Rodes terhenti di depan bahagian Robinson berhampiran Mummasburg Road, tetapi hanya seketika. Briged Daniel dan Ramseur memperbaharui serangan dari Oak Hill, dan brigade Doles di hadapan Elevenh Corps di dataran utara Gettysburg mendapat bantuan tepat pada masanya dengan kedatangan bahagian Early di Harrisburg Road di sebelah kirinya. Ketika barisan Doles telah maju ke arah sumbu Carlisle Road menentang bahagian kecil Schurz. Bahagian Barlow telah terbentuk di utara bandar berhampiran Jalan Harrisburg dan telah mengancam untuk menyerang sayap Dole. Ketibaan awal mengubah jadual. Awal menyelaraskan tiga brigednya ke kiri dan bertentangan dengan barlow depan dan sisi Barlow. Serangannya, ditambah dengan dorongan Rodes, menghancurkan Elevenh Corps yang kurang mendapat tempat. Orang-orang awal menghancurkan korps kanan di Jalan Harrisburg dan menekannya kembali ke bandar, tidak membenarkannya melakukan pembaharuan. Pada masa yang sama, Rodes menyerang Kor Pertama di kanan Jalan Mummasburg dan bahagian Pender menyerang barisan Kor Pertama di seminari. Jeneral Robinson memerintahkan Rejimen Maine ke-16 untuk menutup pengunduran Korps Pertama dari kedudukan Jalan Mummasburg dengan memegang posisinya di sana dengan "apa-apa kos." Ia tahan lama, tetapi kosnya tinggi & # 151232 dari 298 orang lelaki menjadi korban. Takut warna mereka ditangkap, lelaki Maine mengoyakkan bendera menjadi serpihan yang masing-masing akan cuba dibawa.

Selepas pertempuran pagi 1 Julai, Union Iron Brigade menarik diri ke tempat perlindungan dan perlindungan petani kayu John Herbst. Mereka diserang pada sebelah petang oleh brigade Jeneral James J. Pettigrew dari Carolina Utara. Rejimen Leftenan William B. Taylor, North Carolina ke-11, secara langsung menghadapi Michigan ke-24, dengan mana Roswell I. Root swasta berkhidmat. Konfrontasi tersebut mengakibatkan korban jiwa yang menakutkan. Rejimen Taylor kehilangan 250 orang dari 550 orang yang terlibat, dan North Carolina ke-26, yang bertempur di sebelah 11, mengalami lebih 500 korban dalam pertarungan tersebut. Michigan ke-24 akan kehilangan 73 peratus jumlahnya, termasuk 99 yang terbunuh dan cedera parah, jumlah kematian terbesar di mana-mana rejimen Kesatuan dalam Pertempuran Gettysburg. Dalam surat yang ditulis bersumpah selepas pertempuran. Taylor dan Root menggambarkan perjuangan sengit untuk hutan petani Herbst:

Saya telah menerima hadiah anda yang ke-19 dan anda mungkin yakin bahawa ini sangat memuaskan bagi saya. Saya sihat dan tidak mengalami sebarang luka di atal. Saya terkena tembakan anggur tetapi ia tahu kerosakan. O! kaki kaus kaki saya ditembak & sarung pedang saya dipukul sehingga anda dapat membayangkan betapa tebalnya bola itu. Pada hari terakhir bulan Jun brigade kami bergerak menuju Gettesburg dan ketika berhampiran bandar kami mendengar bahawa musuh sedang berlaku di sekitarnya sehingga kami berjalan sejauh kira-kira empat batu dan di sana berkhemah untuk malam itu dan keesokan harinya bahagian kami bergerak menuju ke bandar. Jeneral Davis Miss Brigade di depan kami sehingga mereka memulakan pertempuran dan brigade kami melegakan mereka dan anda semestinya melihat brigade kami ketika menyerang kami mengusir musuh seperti domba. ia melalui ladang lama yang terbuka dan harganya sangat mahal tetapi kami membayarnya dua kali ganda. Iron Brigade Yankeys cuba berdiri tetapi sudah tahu penggunaannya, kami berdiri dalam jarak 20 meter antara satu sama lain selama kira-kira 15 minit tetapi mereka harus memberi jalan dan ketika mereka [melakukannya] kami hanya memotongnya. kami mempunyai 8 orang yang terbunuh di lapangan serta-merta dan 2 lagi cedera yang meninggal sejak hari pertama keluar dari syarikat kami.

LIEUTENANT WILLIAM B. TAYLOR, SYARIKAT B, CAROLINA UTARA KE-11 (GNMP)

1 Julai. Pagi Rabu yang tidak dapat dilupakan, kami diperintahkan untuk berarak dan terus berjalan sehingga retakan kasturi dan meriam meraung membuatkan kami terhenti. Tetapi tidak lama kemudian, kami terus menyerang musuh tanpa senjata kami dimuat dan mereka dengan senang hati masuk ke barisan kami, salah satu daripadanya mengalahkan pembawa warna yang mulia. Namun kami terus berjalan dan pada masa yang sama memuatkan senjata kami dan masuk ke dalam barisan. Dan kemudian membebankan mereka adalah perintah dan kami menagih dan menangkap keseluruhan barisan pertempuran mereka, atau sebahagian besarnya. Saya tidak tahu jumlah tahanan tetapi mereka semua dibawa ke belakang dan selamat.

Sejauh ini kami memenangi hari itu tetapi mengorbankan banyak nyawa, salah satunya adalah Mejar Jeneral kami Reynolds dan yang lain yang tidak sempat saya sebutkan.

Kami sekarang jatuh jauh dan berbaring di hutan [Herbst Woods] kira-kira 3 jam tetapi ada pertempuran di bahagian depan sepanjang masa. Dan kira-kira jam 4 petang kami melihat Pemberontak berkuat kuasa dengan tiga barisan pertempuran untuk kami dan kami dengan malu diperintahkan untuk menahan mereka tanpa sokongan pasukan atau meriam. Oleh itu, kami berdiri di barisan dan melepaskan tembakan selama 20 minit penuh sementara mereka mempunyai tiga garisan menembak ke arah kami. Setelah kami semua berhenti, mereka memerintahkan pengunduran yang dilakukan dalam beberapa kebingungan dan tetapi hanya sedikit yang kembali tanpa calar dan banyak yang tidak sama sekali.

Betul-betul patuh anda
Anak Besar
R. Akar

Pada waktu ini, sekitar jam 4 PM, Jeneral Howard menyedari bahawa bala bantuan yang diharapkan dari Kor Dua Belas tidak akan tiba tepat pada waktunya. Dia memerintahkan Kor Pertama dan Kesebelas untuk jatuh kembali ke bandar ke Cemetery Hill, ketinggian yang naik 100 kaki di atas pinggir selatan bandar di pangkalannya dan meliputi jalan keluar Emmitsburg dan Taneytown Roads dan Baltimore Pike. Kedua-dua pasukan itu tidak mempunyai pilihan lain. Kira-kira dan melebihi jumlah, mereka dihalau dari kedudukan mereka di utara dan barat Gettysburg.

Sayangnya, ada sedikit persiapan yang dibuat untuk berundur melalui Gettysburg, tetapi itu bukan kebiasaan. Konfederasi, terutama dari bahagian Hill's Corps dan Rodes, telah difitnah dengan teruk dalam kemenangan mereka dan tidak menekan serangan mereka dengan penuh dendam. Artileri Federal bergerak melalui bandar dengan baik, beberapa rejimen Kesatuan, seperti Wisconsin ke-6, bertempur dengan pengawal belakang. Sebahagian dari Korps Kesebelas di New York ke-45, yang retretnya telah terputus, menentang di bandar itu sehingga perlawanan tidak sia-sia bagi banyak orang, yang kemudian menjadi tahanan. Dan kemudian ada yang melarikan diri secara mendadak atau termasuk di antara 3,600 tentera Union yang ditangkap pada hari itu.

Pada awal petang, Meade menghantar Jeneral Winfield S. Hancock, komandan Union Second Corps, ke lapangan untuk mengambil alih pasukan di sana jika Reynolds tidak mampu. Hancock hendak memberi tahu Meade sama ada Tentera Potomac harus bertempur di Gettysburg atau kembali ke Pipe Creek. Hancock sampai di Cemetery Hill ketika Howard dan Doubleday mengumpulkan pasukan yang kalah di sana. Howard, Doubleday, dan Hancock dengan cepat menyiarkan sisa pasukan Union, mungkin 9.000 orang, di Cemetery Hill. Sebilangan besar artileri dari dua pasukan Union, kira-kira empat puluh senapang, segera bersedia untuk mempertahankan bukit. Tetapi Hill's Corps sepertinya tidak dalam keadaan melakukan serangan seperti itu. Lee menyerahkan keputusan itu kepada Ewell, dan Ewell, yang tidak dapat meminta bantuan dari Hill dan hanya memiliki dua brigade untuk bekerja, dengan bijak memutuskan untuk tidak menyerang pasukan Union di atas bukit. Pertempuran 1 Julai berakhir dengan Konfederasi yang telah dimenangi hari ini tetapi bukan kemenangan yang menentukan. Lebih banyak pertempuran berlaku di hadapan.


Kandungan

Tentera Lee memenangi pertempuran penting di Chancellorsville di Virginia pada bulan Mei 1863. [10] Setelah itu, dia memimpin tenteranya ke utara melalui Lembah Shenandoah. Rencananya adalah untuk memulakan pencerobohan keduanya ke Utara (disebut Kempen Gettysburg). [10] Lee mempunyai beberapa objektif dalam fikiran. [10] Dia bermaksud mengambil Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, ibu negara. [10] Ini, dia berharap, akan memalukan pentadbiran Lincoln [10] dan memaksa ahli politik Utara untuk menghentikan perang. Pada ketika ini, Lee bermain politik. [10] Dia tahu bahawa jika dia berjaya di Pennsylvania, itu akan mendorong gerakan perdamaian Utara. Dia berharap ia mendapat pengiktirafan asing untuk Gabungan. [10] Ini juga dapat memaksa Kesatuan untuk berunding untuk perdamaian, yang memungkinkan negara-negara Gabungan untuk menjadi negara yang merdeka. [10] Lee sangat memerlukan bekalan dan bermaksud untuk mendapatkannya di Pennsylvania. [b] Selain menjadi ibu negara, Harrisburg juga merupakan lokasi Camp Curtin, kem latihan terbesar untuk tentera Union. [13] Ia adalah pusat kereta api utama. [13] Lebih penting lagi ialah depot bekalan utama dan juga tahanan kem perang. [14]

Di Utara, Lincoln memberitahu Mejar Jeneral Joseph Hooker agar tentera Union mengikuti tentera Lee. [9] Tetapi Hooker sangat enggan mengejar Gabungan. Akhirnya, Lincoln kehilangan semua kepercayaan kepadanya. [9] Pada 28 Jun, tiga hari sebelum Pertempuran Gettysburg, Lincoln melantik Jeneral Meade untuk menggantikan Hooker. [9] Sekiranya Konfederasi menang, pasukan konfederasi akan mempunyai akses ke Philadelphia atau Baltimore. [15] Naib Presiden Hannibal Hamlin pergi ke Lincoln untuk membincangkan tawanan perdagangan perang lima hari sebelum Pertempuran Gettysburg. [15]

Baik Lee maupun Meade tidak bermaksud pertempuran berlaku di Gettysburg dan juga tidak ada ketika pertempuran bermula. [16] Pada 30 Jun 1863, Jeneral Konfederasi Henry Heth mempunyai bahagian di Cashtown, Pennsylvania, tempat berkumpul Lee sebelum pindah ke Harrisburg. Heth menghantar bahagiannya ke Gettysburg yang berdekatan untuk mencari, kerana dia kemudian menulis dalam laporannya, "persediaan tentera (terutama kasut), dan kembali pada hari yang sama." [17] Ini memulakan mitos bahawa Pertempuran Gettysburg bermula dengan kasut. [c] [17] Heth melakukan ini tanpa mencari tahu apa yang ada di Gettysburg. Tugas pengakap adalah milik pasukan berkuda Confederate di bawah J.E.B. Stuart. [17] Tetapi mereka telah hilang selama lebih dari seminggu. [17] Jadi, tidak tahu apa yang ada di depan mereka, tenteranya langsung memasuki bahagian pasukan berkuda Union yang diperintahkan oleh Jeneral John Buford. [16] Ini memulakan pertempuran walaupun Heth dan komandan lain mendapat perintah dari Lee untuk tidak memulakan pertempuran. [17] Tetapi, ketika setiap pihak membawa lebih banyak pasukan, itu menjadi pertempuran skala penuh. [16] Lee mula menggerakkan sebahagian besar tenteranya ke sana. Salah satu tujuannya adalah memerangi tentera Union dan menghancurkannya. Sekarang, dia harus melakukannya di Gettysburg.

Kira-kira jam 5.30 pagi pagi 1 Julai, pertempuran bermula. Heth meluru ke depan dengan hati-hati ke titik sekitar dua batu di sebelah barat Gettysburg. [20] Buford's cavalry was deliberately slowing his progress. At about 10 a.m. the Union I Corps arrived commanded by General John F. Reynolds. [20] They set themselves up along McPherson's Ridge to oppose Heth's Confederates. During the fighting Reynolds was killed but the Confederates were driven back. Meanwhile, both sides brought up reinforcements. [20] The Union set up defenses of the town with I Corps defending the western approaches with XI Corps to the north. The flanks were covered by Buford's cavalry. One Union division was held in reserve on Cemetery Ridge. In the afternoon, when Lee arrived, the Confederates still did not know the strength of the Union forces they were facing. [20] They also had not scouted the terrain. [20] One division of Ewell's Corps had attacked the Union I Corps just after noon. [20] At about 2 p.m. Heth's division joined Ewell's troops in the attack on I Corps. [20] At about 3 p.m., another of Ewell's Confederate divisions, commanded by General Jubal Early, attacked the flank of the Union XI Corps. [20] By 4 p.m., both of the Union corps retreated through Gettysburg and took up positions on Cemetery Ridge. [20] So far, the Union had lost about 9,000 men including about 3,000 who had been captured. [20] The Confederates had lost about 6,500 men by this point. [20] So the first day of battle was technically a Confederate victory numbers-wise. But Federal troops held the high ground as more reinforcements were still arriving. [20] Based on the first day's fighting, Lee was convinced he could defeat Meade at Gettysburg. [20]

Late in the day, Lee sent the famous order to Confederate General Richard S. Ewell to take cemetery ridge "if practicable.” [d] [10] While he had been awaiting orders from Lee, Ewell had ridden out to take a closer look at Cemetery Ridge. [23] Based on what he saw and the confusing order, he decided it was not practicable to take the hill and set up camp. [22] Instead, he decided to leave the assault for the next day. This was the first major mistake of the battle for the South. The Army of the Potomac would end the day with around 21,900 men strongly positioned on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Ridge. The Army of Northern Virginia would have around 27,000 men from Benner's Hill to Seminary Ridge.

On the second day of battle, most of both armies had arrived. The Union line held the high ground in a defensive formation that looked like a fishhook. On July 2, Lee ordered General James Longstreet, commander of the Confederate I Corps, to attack the Union left flank as early in the day as possible. [24] At the same time General A. P. Hill's corps was to attack the Union center. [24] General Ewell was to make diversionary attacks and "if practicable" attack the Union Army's right flank. [24] Lee felt that if everything went according to his plan and the Union line was destroyed, the battle, and possibly the war, would be won on the second day. [24] Lee's coordinated attack required getting all the infantry into position and moving up artillery to support them. [25] Longstreet had the furthest to go and midway in their march realized the Union lines could see them. They went back and had to take a different route. [25] Longstreet could not get his corps into position until about 4 p.m. when he began his attack. [25] His attack on the Union line lasted for over three hours but could not break the Union line. [25] Hill's Corps failed to be effective in the center. [25] Ewell did not attack Cemetery Ridge as instructed in Lee's confusing order, but made some progress in taking Culp's Hill. [25]

Union Major General Daniel Sickles, a political general commanding III Corps, disobeyed Meade's orders and moved his troops forward to the Peach Orchard. [26] He had been ordered to take up a position on Little Round Top connecting with Union forces on both his right and left. By doing this he left a large hole in the Union line. He marched to a position nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) in front of the Union line with no support on either side. [27] Within an hour, his entire III Corps was nearly wiped out by Longstreet. [27] Sickles was badly wounded by a cannonball and lost a leg. Being wounded was all that saved him from a court-martial. [27] Sickles' blunder nearly lost the entire battle for the Union. [28]

On the night of July 2, Longstreet's largest division commanded by General George Pickett arrived and was placed in the center of the Confederate line. Lee's plan for the next day was to attack on both the Union right and left, just as he had done the day before. [29] Lee was still certain he could break the Union line and win the battle. [29] That day Stuart's cavalry had caught up with Lee's army and Lee ordered Stuart to ride around the East side of Gettysburg and attack the Union rear. [29] Ewell had also been reinforced and was ordered to take Culp's Hill the next morning. [29]

Meade ordered the Union XII Corps to drive Ewell's forces off the captured trenches on Culp's Hill. [29] They were to move at daylight the next morning. [29] He was determined the remainder of the Union Army would hold its position and wait for Lee to attack. [29]

Ewell began fighting on Culp's Hill at first light. [29] Lee rode to Longstreet's headquarters only to find Longstreet had misunderstood his orders. [29] He was planning a turning movement against the Union left. Now, with no hope of a coordinated attack, Lee changed the plan. Longstreet was to attack the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. Ewell's forces failed in their counterattacks and were forced to withdraw from Culp's Hill by about 11:00 a.m. [29] Lee pinned all his hopes on Longstreet's attack on the center. [30] Longstreet had the last fresh division in Lee's army. [30] It was made up of three brigades, commanded by generals James L. Kemper, Richard B. Garnett, and Lewis A. Armistead, led by Pickett. [30]

Cannons Edit

First, a bombardment by about 140 Confederate cannons on the Union lines was ordered. [29] The bombardment started about 1 p.m. [31] About 80 Union cannons returned fire. [32] The cannons duel lasted for between one and two hours, depending on the source (most say about an hour). [31] The Confederate artillery chief, General Edward Porter Alexander, had only intended it to last for about 25 minutes. [31] But he then realized it had done little damage to the Union line so he continued. [31] But he also had to worry about running out of ammunition and not have enough to support the charge that was Pickett was about to make. [31] When the Union guns fell silent, Porter thought he had knocked them out. [31] But it was a trick by the Union artillery chief. [31] His guns were waiting for the charge the Union forces knew was coming. Alexander sent word to Pickett he could start his attack.

The cannonade could be heard as far away as Philadelphia. [33] The noise was so loud the gunner's ears bled. [34] It was probably the loudest noise that had ever been heard on the North American continent up to that time. [33] In the end the Confederate cannons may have killed as many as 200 Union soldiers in the area that would later become known as the "bloody angle". [31] But the Union guns may have killed more Confederate troops. [31]

Pickett's Charge Edit

Calling the Confederate attack on the Union center "Pickett's Charge" is misleading for two reasons. [35] First, Pickett commanded only one of the three units in the assault. [35] Second, it was not a charge, which is a rapid advance towards the enemy, it was an attack which moved forward more slowly and over a longer distance. [35] These Virginia units were joined by several smaller units of Confederates (some from North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama) whose numbers had been reduced by the fighting over the first two days. [30] When the cannons stopped, Pickett went to Longstreet to ask permission to begin the attack. [34] Longstreet, sure the attack would fail, silently nodded his head and gave a wave of his hand. [34] Longstreet had tried to get Lee to call off the attack, but Lee would not listen. [34]

Over 12,000 Confederates stepped out from the trees and formed up for the long march forward. [34] Waiting for them behind a low stone fence on Cemetery Ridge were about 5,000 Union troops, most of whom belonged to General Winfield Scott Hancock's II Corps. [30] Depending on the source, this was between 2:00 and 3:00 p.m. [30] As they marched forward across the 1 mile (1.6 km) distance, Union artillery killed large numbers of troops. [36] Rifle fire from the Union line was intense. The Union troops used four lines of soldiers. [35] As the line in front fired, they moved back to reload while the next line moved up to fire. [35] Only a few hundred of the Virginians reached the Union line. Within minutes they were dead or dying. [36] Some were captured. The attack lasted about an hour with over 7,000 Confederate soldiers killed. [36] As the remaining Confederate troops retreated, Lee was seen riding his horse saying "this was all my fault". [37] He then told Pickett to rally his division. Pickett famously replied, "General, I have no division." [37]

At about the same time as the main attack, Stuart's cavalry attacked the Union rear but the attack also failed. [38]

Lee brought an army into Pennsylvania that numbered 75,054 men and lost 22,638 casualties or about 30% of his army. [39] Meade lost so many field grade officers that the Army of the Potomac would not recover for the rest of the war. [39] Both the Union I Corps and III Corps lost so many men they had to be combined with II Corps. [39] The battle took more American lives than any other battle in United States history. Gettysburg is still the largest battle to ever be fought on American soil. The Union victory over the Confederacy ended Lee's invasion of the north. Lee would never try to invade the Union again. The Army of Northern Virginia would never get their strength back. However the supplies taken during their time in Pennsylvania would keep the Confederate army going. [40] The wagon train of supply wagons and ambulances for the wounded was over 17 miles (27 km) long. [40] Lee never had more than 51,000 men the rest of the war. Numbers from the Union forces wore down Lee and his army. This is why Gettysburg is said to be the turning point of the American Civil War. After the battle the confederates figured out that there was a slave spy. [41]

Meade was severely criticized for not counterattacking Lee after the third day of battle. The next day Meade sent out skirmishers, but did not attack. [42] Lee had his army hold its position on Seminary Ridge all day on July 4. The more than 10,000 wounded men would be moved by wagon train 40 miles (64 km) to Williamsport and cross the Potomac to Virginia. The rest of Lee's army followed on the night of July 4–5, screened by Jeb Stuart's cavalry. [42] The next day, on discovering the Confederates had left the battlefield, the Union army cautiously followed. At the Battle of Falling Waters, Lee's army was waiting for the flooded Potomac River to go down so his army could cross. Meade's forces caught up with them there but the battle had no clear victor. The Battle of Falling Waters was the last battle in the Gettysburg Campaign. [43]


16th North Carolina Infantry Regiment

The 16th North Carolina Infantry Regiment was organized for one year’s service at Raleigh as the 6th Infantry Regiment Volunteers under the command of Colonel Stephen Lee, Lieutenant Colonel Robert G.A. Love, and Major Benjamin F. Briggs.

Company A – Jackson County – Captain Andrew W. Coleman
Company B – Madison County – Captain John Peek
Company C – Yancey County – Captain John S. McElroy
Company D – Rutherford County – Captain Herbert D. Lee
Company E – Burke County – “Burke Tigers” – Captain Elijah J. Kirksey
Company F – Buncombe County – Captain Patrick H. Thrash
Company G – Rutherford County – Captain Champion T.N. Davis
Company H – Macon County – Captain Thomas M. Angel
Company I – Henderson County – Captain William M. Shipp
Company K – Polk County – “Carolina Boys” – Captain John C. Camp
Company L – Haywood County – Captain Elisha G. Johnston
Company M – Gaston County – Captain William A. Stowe

Cheat Mountain
Siege of Yorktown

The regiment was reorganized for the duration of the war. Company N (“Rutherford Rifles” – Rutherford County) was added. Captain Champion T.N. Davis of Company G was elected colonel, Captain John S. McElroy of Company C was elected lieutenant colonel, and Captain William Stowe of Company M was elected major.

The new company officers were:
Company A -Captain James R. Love
Company B – Captain Solomon W. Carter
Company C – Captain Creed F. Young
Company D – Captain Adolphus A. McKinney
Company E – Captain Elijah J. Kirksey (reected)
Company F – Captain Henry C. Worley
Company G – Captain Lawson Pinkney Erwin
Company H – Captain James L. Robinson
Company I – Captain William B. Whitaker
Company K – Captain John C. Camp (reelected)
Company L – Captain Alden G. Howell
Company M – Captain Leroy W. Stowe
Company N – James W. Kilpatrick (reelected)

Pertempuran Seven Pines

Colonel Davis was killed. Lieutenant Colonel McElroy was promoted to colonel and Major Stowe to lieutenant colonel.

Company M was transferred to the 56th North Carolina Infantry Regiment as Company I.

Seven Days Battles

The regiment lost lost 33 men killed and 199 wounded in the week’s fighting.

Beaver Dam Creek
Battle of Gaines’ Mill
Frayser’s Farm

Captain Andrew W. Coleman, of Company A was killed. Lieutenant A.W. Bryson took command until he was wounded, and the company ended the battle under the command of Sergeant John S. Keener.

Pertempuran Gunung Cedar
Second Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

The regiment lost 8 men killed and 44 wounded.

Battle of Ox Hill (Chantilly)

Crossed the Potomac River.

Reached Frederick, Maryland.

Capture of Harpers Ferry
Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William A. Stowe.

From the War Department marker for Pender’s Brigade along Harpers Ferry Road at Antietam:

Pender’s Brigade left Harpers Ferry at 7:30 A.M. of September 17, crossed the Potomac by Blackford’s Ford and reached this road about 3 P.M. It was placed in position near this point to guard the approaches to the battlefield from the lower Antietam. It was exposed to the long range Infantry and Artillery fire of the enemy but was not otherwise actively engaged.

Late in the day it was moved to the left, and on the morning of the 18th, took position on the left of Branch’s Brigade, where it remained until it was withdrawn to recross the Potomac.

Shepherdstown Ford
Battle of Fredericksburg

The regiment lost 6 men killed and 48 wounded. Colonel MeElroy was wounded and disabled. Lieutenant Colonel Stowe was promoted to colonel.

Battle of Chancellorsville

The regiment lost 105 casualties. Colonel Stowe was wounded.

Pertempuran Gettysburg

The regiment was commanded at Gettysburg by Captain Leroy W. Stowe. It brought 321 men to the field and lost 72 casualties.

From the monument to Scales’ Brigade on the Gettysburg battlefield:

July 1. Crossed Willoughby Run about 3.30 P. M. relieving Heth’s line and advancing with left flank on Chambersburg Pike took part in the struggle until it ended. When the Union forces made their final stand on Seminary Ridge the Brigade charged and aided in dislodging them but suffered heavy losses. Gen. A. M. Scales was wounded and all the field officers but one were killed or wounded.

July 2. In position near here with skirmishers out in front and on flank.

July 3. In Longstreet’s assault the Brigade supported the right wing of Pettigrew’s Division. With few officers to lead them the men advanced in good order through a storm of shot and shell and when the front line neared the Union works they pushed forward to aid it in the final struggle and were among the last to retire.

July 4. After night withdrew and began the march to Hagerstown.


Union General Abner Doubleday Forever Seethed About ‘Unfair Treatment’ At Gettysburg

The Battle of Gettysburg stood supreme in its ability to spark postwar controversies among officers in both the Confederate and Union high commands. Infighting among former generals of the Army of Northern Virginia has garnered the most attention from historians, resulting in a sizable literature that features James Longstreet playing villain to Jubal A. Early and other Lost Cause warriors who sought to absolve Robert E. Lee of all responsibility for defeat. J.E.B. Stuart, Richard S. Ewell, and A.P. Hill held supporting roles in these long-running debates that filled many pages in the Southern Historical Society Papers, personal memoirs, and other publications.

On the United States side, Maj. Gen. Daniel E. Sickles’ decision on July 2 to abandon his position on Cemetery Ridge and occupy a line stretching from the Klingel Farm along the Emmitsburg Road to Devil’s Den generated the most acrimony. Congress helped fuel the fires among Union generals because the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War solicited and published testimony from many of the key actors.

Few officers on either side nursed a deeper sense of grievance than Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday. New York-born and a graduate of West Point in 1842, he fought as an artillerist during the war with Mexico. During the secession crisis, he served under Major Robert Anderson as a captain in the 1st U.S. Artillery stationed at Fort Sumter. He commanded the 2nd Division in Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds’ 1st Corps at Fredericksburg and, in the spring of 1863, took charge of the 3rd Division in that corps and led it at Chancellorsville (his troops played insignificant roles in both battles). Still head of the 3rd Division on July 1 at Gettysburg, he assumed corps command after Reynolds’ wounding and led it for the rest of the day.

That evening, based largely on 11th Corps commander Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard’s reporting to Winfield Scott Hancock that “Doubleday’s command gave way” during the chaotic late- afternoon fighting, army commander George G. Meade placed the 1st Corps under John Newton. Seething at what he considered unfair treatment (Newton was junior to him in rank), Doubleday returned to the 3rd Division for the rest of the battle but soon left the Army of the Potomac. He never held another field command during the war, spending much of his time on courts-martial in Washington, D.C.

Howard and Meade had incurred the New Yorker’s enduring wrath, a fact made evident in Doubleday’s Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. Written as part of Scribner’s “Campaigns of the Civil War” series and published in 1882, the book bristled with criticism of the pair. Especially upset with Howard’s unfair insinuation that the 1st Corps collapsed prior to the retreat of the 11th Corps on July 1, Doubleday observed: “General Howard hastened to send a special messenger to General Meade with the baleful intelligence that the 1st Corps had fled from the field at the first contact with the enemy….[T]his astounding news created the greatest feeling against the corps, who were loudly cursed for their supposed lack of spirit and patriotism.” Doubleday also averred that Reynolds, rather than Howard, deserved credit for selecting Cemetery Hill as a position of great strength.

Maj. Gen. Abner Doubelday briefly took over the Army of the Potomac’s 1st Corps at Gettysburg after Maj. Gen. John Reynolds was killed on the morning of July 1, 1863, pictured here. (Niday Picture Library/Alamy Stock Photo)

As for Meade, Doubleday portrayed him as timid and eager to abandon the field after the second day’s action. “At night a council of war was held,” he wrote with clear malice, “in which it was unanimously voted to stay and fight it out. Meade was displeased with the result, and although he acquiesced in the decision, he said angrily, ‘Have it your own way, gentlemen, but Gettysburg is no place to fight a battle in.’”

The army’s new chief, added Doubleday, had been rattled by the fierce Confederate attacks on July 2 and “thought it better to retreat with what he had, than run the risk of losing all.” Doubleday buttressed his version of events with a long footnote that acknowledged a “public discussion” about Meade’s intentions on the night of the 2nd. “There is no question in my mind,” he reiterated in the note, “that, at the council referred to, General Meade did desire to retreat….” The aftermath of Pickett’s Charge, Doubleday suggested, similarly showed Meade’s indecisiveness. At the critical moment at Waterloo, the Duke of Wellington had ordered, “Up, guards, and at them!” In contrast, “General Meade had made no arrangements to give a return thrust.”

Howard surely knew about Doubleday’s vituperative comments but chose not to respond in his own memoirs. Published in two thick volumes in 1907 as Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, Major General United States Army, they mentioned Doubleday’s actions at Gettysburg in purely descriptive passages. After chronicling hard pressure on both the 1st and 11th Corps after 3:30 p.m. on July 1, Howard stated simply that with firing “growing worse and worse” he determined that the “front lines could not hold out much longer.” “I will not attempt to describe the action further…,” he continued. “The order I sent to Doubleday then was this: ‘If you cannot hold out longer, you must fall back to the cemetery and take position on the left of the Baltimore Pike.’”

Meade reacted with more emotion. Doubleday’s testimony before the Joint Committee, which anticipated criticisms he leveled in Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, spurred Meade to complain to his wife in early March 1864 about “the explosion of the conspiracy to have me relieved…in which the Committee on the Conduct of the War, with Generals Doubleday and Sickles, are the agents.” The two-volume edition of Meade’s letters, published in 1913, included as an appendix a newspaper article by Sickles printed in The New York Times on April 1, 1883, that detailed Meade’s “Proposed Retreat on the Night of the 2nd of July.” Another appendix offered a stinging reply to Doubleday’s version of events, pronouncing General Meade’s actions “utterly inconsistent…with any such intention as that ascribed to him by General Doubleday.”

Impartial observers can find admirable and self-interested behavior and statements from Doubleday, Meade, and Howard regarding Gettysburg. Modern visitors to the battlefield will find statues to all three men that face resolutely toward the enemy.


Scales’ Brigade

The brigade was commanded at the Battle of Gettysburg by Brigadier General Alfred Scales, a North Carolina lawyer and politician.

On July 1st it took part in a costly charge against the final Union line on Seminary Ridge. General Scales was badly wounded in the leg and every field officer in the brigade except two were killed or wounded.

The brigade was left in reserve on July 2nd, but on the 3rd it was included in the attack that came to be known as Pickett’s Charge. Colonel William L.J. Lowrance of the 34th North Carolina Infantry led the brigade in the charge. He had also had been wounded on the 1st, but not as severely as Scales.

Lanes’ and Scales’ brigades together could field no more than 800 men for the assault. Many were wounded to some extent. Nevertheless Scales’ North Carolinians made one of the furthest advances of the charge, leading to a controversy with Pickett’s Virginians over who went the farthest at Gettysburg which goes on to this day.

Text from the monument

July 1. Crossed Willoughby Run about 3.30 P. M. relieving Heth’s line and advancing with left flank on Chambersburg Pike took part in the struggle until it ended. When the Union forces made their final stand on Seminary Ridge the Brigade charged and aided in dislodging them but suffered heavy losses. Gen. A. M. Scales was wounded and all the field officers but one were killed or wounded.

July 2. In position near here with skirmishers out in front and on flank.

July 3. In Longstreet’s assault the Brigade supported the right wing of Pettigrew’s Division. With few officers to lead them the men advanced in good order through a storm of shot and shell and when the front line neared the Union works they pushed forward to aid it in the final struggle and were among the last to retire.

July 4. After night withdrew and began the march to Hagerstown.


The Battle of Gettysburg ended JULY 3, 1863

American Minute with Bill Federer

Washington, D.C., was in a panic!

72,000 Confederate troops were just sixty miles away near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

What led up to this Battle?

After the Confederate victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee was under a time deadline.

Mounting casualties of the war were causing Lincoln’s popularity to fall, so if Lee could get a quick victory at Gettysburg, he could pressure Lincoln to a truce.

But this window of opportunity was fast closing, as Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was about to capture Vicksburg on the Mississippi, which would divide the Confederacy and free up thousands of Union troops to fight Lee in the east.

Unfortunately for Lee, his tremendously successful General, “Stonewall” Jackson, had died two months earlier, having been mistakenly shot by his own men.

On the Union side, Lincoln replaced Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker with Maj. Gen. George Meade to command the 94,000 men of the Union Army of the Potomac.

The Battle of Gettysburg began July 1, 1863.

After two days of intense combat, with ammunition running low, General Robert E. Lee ordered a direct attack.

Confederate General James Longstreet disagreed with Lee’s plan resulting in his delayed advance till after all the Confederate artillery had been spent, leaving no cover fire.

Historians speculate that if General Longstreet had made a timely attack, the Confederates may have won the day.

As it happened, 12,500 Confederate soldiers marched across a mile of open field without artillery cover to make “Pickett’s Charge” directly into the Union position at Cemetery Ridge.

An hour of murderous fire and bloody hand-to-hand combat ensued, followed by the Confederates being pushed back.

The Battle of Gettysburg ended JULY 3, 1863, with over 50,000 casualties.

The next day, Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant, giving the Union Army control of the Mississippi River.

When news reached London, all hopes of Europe recognizing the Confederacy were lost.

For the next two years, the South was on the defensive.

On July 5, 1863, President Lincoln and his son visited General Daniel E. Sickles, who had his leg blown off at Gettysburg.

General James F. Rusling recorded that when General Sickles asked Lincoln if he was anxious before the Battle, Lincoln answered:

“No, I was not some of my Cabinet and many others in Washington were, but I had no fears …”

“In the pinch of your campaign up there, when everybody seemed panic-stricken, and nobody could tell what was going to happen, oppressed by the gravity of our affairs, I went to my room one day,

and I locked the door, and got down on my knees before Almighty God, and prayed to Him mightily for victory at Gettysburg.

I told Him that this was His war, and our cause His cause, but we couldn’t stand another Fredericksburg or Chancellorsville.

And I then and there made a solemn vow to Almighty God, that if He would stand by our boys at Gettysburg, I would stand by Him …”

“And He did stand by you boys, and I will stand by Him.

And after that (I don’t know how it was, and I can’t explain it), soon a sweet comfort crept into my soul that God Almighty had taken the whole business into his own hands and that things would go all right at Gettysburg.”

Twelve days after the Battle of Gettysburg, July 15, 1863, Lincoln proclaimed a Day of Prayer:

“It is meet and right to recognize and confess the presence of the Almighty Father and the power of His hand equally in these triumphs and in these sorrows …

I invite the people of the United States to … render the homage due to the Divine Majesty for the wonderful things He has done in the nation’s behalf and invoke the influence of His Holy Spirit to subdue the anger which has produced and so long sustained a needless and cruel rebellion.”

In his Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln ended:

“We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom —

and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”

Years later at the Gettysburg Battlefield, President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated May 30, 1934:

“On these hills of Gettysburg two brave armies of Americans once met in contest …

Since those days, two subsequent wars, both with foreign Nations, have measurably … softened the ancient passions.

It has been left to us of this generation to see the healing made permanent.”

President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated, September 17, 1937:

“I came into the world 17 years after the close of the war between the States … Today … there are still many among us who can remember it …

It serves us little to discuss again the rights and the wrongs of the long 4-years’ war … We can but wish that the war had never been. We can and we do revere the memory of the brave men who fought on both sides …

But we know today that it was best … for the generations of Americans who have come after them, that the conflict did not end in a division of our land into two nations.

I like to think that it was the will of God that we remain one people.”

At the Confederate Memorial in Arlington Cemetery, President Coolidge said, May 25, 1924:

“It was Lincoln who pointed out that both sides prayed to the same God. When that is the case, it is only a matter of time when each will seek a common end.

We can now see clearly what that end is. It is the maintenance of our American ideals, beneath a common flag, under the blessings of Almighty God.”

In his 3rd Inaugural Address, President Franklin D. Roosevelt said, January 20, 1941:

“The spirit of America … is the product of centuries … born in the multitudes of those who came from many lands …

Aspirasi demokratik bukanlah fasa baru dalam sejarah manusia. It is human history …

Its vitality was written into our own Mayflower Compact, into the Declaration of Independence, into the Constitution of the United States, into the Gettysburg Address …

If the spirit of America were killed, even though the Nation’s body … lived on, the America we know would have perished.”

Self-Educated American Contributing Editor, William J. Federer, is the bestselling author of “Backfired: A Nation Born for Religious Tolerance no Longer Tolerates Religion,” and numerous other books. A frequent radio and television guest, his daily American Minute is broadcast nationally via radio, television, and Internet. Check out all of Bill’s books here.


Battle of Gettysburg Ends: On This Day, July 3

The Battle of Gettysburg, fought in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, from July 1 to July 3, 1863, ended with a victory for Union General George Meade and the Army of the Potomac.

The three-day battle was the bloodiest in the war, with approximately 51,000 casualties. Even with such heavy losses, it proved to be a significant victory for the Union. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, under General Robert E. Lee, had invaded Union territory and was moving through southern Pennsylvania with an eye to Harrisburg, the state capital. General Lee hoped that defeating the Union army in a large battle on Northern territory would deliver a great, perhaps final blow to the war-weary United States. But the Union victory effectively ended the Confederate invasion of the North and provided a much-needed boost of morale for US soldiers and civilians alike.

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought not only on the field, but on the streets of Gettysburg as well. On July 1, Confederate soldiers chased retreating Union soldiers through the town, then looted homes and cellars for valuables, clothing, and food. Despite this initial Union retreat, the battle ended on July 3 with Pickett’s Charge, in which a force of 15,000 Confederate soldiers charged through open fields at Union lines but failed to break through them.

In this video, take a virtual tour of the battlefield with historian Matthew Pinsker, Associate Professor of History and Pohanka Chair in American Civil War History, Dickinson College, as he provides a guide to the battle’s most important locations.


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