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Anthony Burgess - Sejarah

Anthony Burgess - Sejarah


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Anthony Burgess

1917-1993

Penulis novel

Ketua novelis dan pengkritik Britain, Anthony Burgess dilahirkan di Harpurhey, Lancashire England pada 25 Februari 1917. Dia mungkin terkenal dengan karya yang menggembirakan, Jarum Jam (1962), yang melukis potret menakutkan masyarakat masa depan yang ditandai dengan keganasan dan kawalan minda yang disokong oleh pemerintah. Burgess juga menghasilkan karya ilmiah pada James Joyce, serta banyak ulasan buku dan juga komposisi orkestra.


Sejarah Burgess, Crest Family & Coats of Arms

Nama Burgess dibawa ke England dalam pergerakan besar orang yang mengikuti Penaklukan Norman pada tahun 1066. Keluarga Burgess tinggal di Sussex. Nama itu berasal dari perkataan Inggeris tengah burge (i) s, atau kata Old French burgeis yang bermaksud & quot; penghuni dan orang bebas dari kota yang diperkaya. & Quot [1]

Garis ini dipercayai berasal dari Barons Burghersh, yang kemudian menjadi Burwash, sebuah paroki di daerah itu. Sebilangan keluarga juga kekal di Normandia, seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Simon de Borgeis pada tahun 1195. [2] Tetapi pada asalnya keluarga itu berasal dari Bourgeois di Picardy, Perancis. Garis baron ini pupus pada tahun 1369.

Set 4 Cawan Kopi dan Gantungan Kunci

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Asal Awal keluarga Burgess

Nama keluarga Burgess pertama kali dijumpai di Sussex di mana salah satu catatan pertama nama itu adalah Ralph de Burgeis, yang disenaraikan dalam Pipe Rolls of Sussex pada tahun 1195. Philip Burgis disenaraikan di Leicestershire pada tahun 1199 dan Philip Burges, Burgeis disenaraikan dalam Oxfordshire pada tahun 1220, 1234. Subsidi Rolls of Sussex menyenaraikan Walter le Borgeys pada tahun 1296. [3]

Senarai Hundredorum Rolls of 1273: Hawise Burgeys di Bedfordshire Philip Burgeis on Oxfordshire John le Burges di Southampton dan Thomas Burgeys di Norfolk. The Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 179 list: Adam Burgeys dan Johannes Burges. [4]

Lebih jauh ke selatan di Cornwall, & barton Cuskease [di paroki St. Erth] milik sebelumnya keluarga Burgess of Trethingey. Dari ini ia diserahkan oleh pewaris ke Hoblyns of Nanswhyden, di mana ia masih terletak. & Quot [5]

Pakej Lambang dan Nama Keluarga

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Sejarah Awal keluarga Burgess

Laman web ini hanya menunjukkan petikan kecil kajian Burgess kami. 182 perkataan lain (13 baris teks) merangkumi tahun 1115, 1515, 1382, 1382, 1685, 1589, 1665, 1664, 1650, 1716, 1690, 1673, 1747, 1746 dan termasuk di bawah topik Sejarah Burgess Awal dalam semua produk PDF Extended History dan produk bercetak kami sedapat mungkin.

Baju Tudung Berkerudung Unisex

Variasi Ejaan Burgess

Banyak variasi ejaan adalah ciri khas nama Anglo Norman. Sebilangan besar nama-nama ini berkembang pada abad ke-11 dan ke-12, pada masa selepas orang-orang Norman memperkenalkan bahasa Perancis Norman mereka sendiri ke sebuah negara di mana bahasa Inggeris Lama dan Tengah tidak mempunyai peraturan ejaan dan bahasa pengadilannya adalah bahasa Perancis dan Latin. Untuk memburukkan lagi keadaan, ahli kitab abad pertengahan mengeja kata-kata sesuai dengan suara, sehingga nama sering muncul secara berbeza dalam berbagai dokumen di mana mereka direkodkan. Nama itu dieja Burgess, Burgeis, Burghersh, Burges, Burgesse, Burgar, Bergiss, Bergess, Bargess, Bargeis, Bergeus, Burgeus, Burgeuss dan banyak lagi.

Tokoh Awal keluarga Burgess (pra 1700)

Cemerlang di kalangan keluarga pada masa ini ialah Sir Berth de Borways Cornelius Burges atau Burgess, D.D. (ca.1589-1665), seorang menteri Inggris, berasal dari Burgesses of Batcombe, Somerset dan Anthony Burges atau Burgess (meninggal tahun 1664), seorang pendeta Inggeris Nonkonformis, seorang pendakwah dan penulis yang produktif. Di pihak yang terkenal, Kapten Samuel Burgess (sekitar 1650-1716) adalah anggota kru Kapten William Kidd pada tahun 1690.
63 perkataan lain (4 baris teks) dimasukkan di bawah topik Early Burgess Notables dalam semua produk PDF Extended History dan produk bercetak kami sedapat mungkin.

Penghijrahan keluarga Burgess ke Ireland

Sebilangan keluarga Burgess berpindah ke Ireland, tetapi topik ini tidak dibahas dalam petikan ini.
94 perkataan lain (7 baris teks) mengenai kehidupan mereka di Ireland termasuk dalam semua produk Sejarah Lanjutan PDF dan produk bercetak kami seboleh mungkin.

Penghijrahan burger +

Beberapa peneroka pertama nama keluarga ini adalah:

Peneroka Burgess di Amerika Syarikat pada abad ke-17
  • Joane Burgess, yang mendarat di Maryland pada tahun 1638 [6]
  • Alexander Burgess, yang tiba di New England pada tahun 1651-1652 [6]
  • Joseph Burgess, yang mendarat di Virginia pada tahun 1652 [6]
  • Robert Burgess, yang mendarat di Virginia pada tahun 1652 [6]
Peneroka Burgess di Amerika Syarikat pada abad ke-18
  • Richard Burgess, yang mendarat di Virginia pada tahun 1700 [6]
  • Tho Burgess, yang tiba di Virginia pada tahun 1704 [6]
  • Eliz Burgess, yang mendarat di Virginia pada tahun 1704 [6]
  • Edward Burgess, yang tiba di Virginia pada tahun 1712 [6]
  • Thomas Burgess, yang tiba di Virginia pada tahun 1714 [6]
  • . (Lebih banyak terdapat di semua produk Sejarah Lanjutan PDF dan produk bercetak kami di mana mungkin.)
Peneroka Burgess di Amerika Syarikat pada abad ke-19
  • Robert Burgess, yang tiba di Amerika pada tahun 1805 [6]
  • Samuel Burgess, yang tiba di Washington County, Pennsylvania pada tahun 1840 [6]
  • George Burgess, yang tiba di Allegany (Allegheny) County, Pennsylvania pada tahun 1847 [6]
  • Ann dan George Burgess, yang tiba di Boston pada tahun 1847
  • Alexander Burgess melompat kapal, "George Setia," dan menetap di Witless Bay pada tahun 1847
  • . (Lebih banyak terdapat di semua produk Sejarah Lanjutan PDF dan produk bercetak kami di mana mungkin.)
Peneroka Burgess di Amerika Syarikat pada abad ke-20

Penghijrahan burger ke Kanada +

Beberapa peneroka pertama nama keluarga ini adalah:

Peneroka Burgess di Kanada pada Abad ke-18
  • Encik Benjamin Burgess U.E. yang menetap di St. Andrews, Charlotte County, New Brunswick c. 1783 adalah sebahagian daripada Persatuan Matoon Port [7]
  • Encik John Burgess U.E. yang menetap di Kanada c. 1783 [7]
  • Patrick Burgess, yang menetap di St. Mary's, Newfoundland, pada tahun 1792 [8]
Peneroka Burgess di Kanada pada abad ke-19
  • Daniel Burgess dan isterinya serta lapan anak mereka, yang menetap di Prescott, Ontario pada tahun 1825
  • Daniel Burgess dan isterinya Avice menetap di Prescott, Ontario, pada tahun 1825 bersama tujuh anak mereka
  • Arthur Burgess, yang berhijrah ke Quebec pada tahun 1850
  • Henry Burgess, yang mendarat di Esquimalt, British Columbia pada tahun 1862

Penghijrahan burger ke Australia +

Penghijrahan ke Australia mengikuti Armada Pertama banduan, peniaga dan peneroka awal. Pendatang awal termasuk:

Peneroka Burgess di Australia pada abad ke-19
  • Robert Burgess, banduan Inggeris yang dihukum di Berkshire, England selama 7 tahun, dibawa ke kapal & quotAsiatic & quot & quot; pada 5 Jun 1819, tiba di New South Wales, Australia [9]
  • Thomas S. Burgess, seorang yang bergabung, yang tiba di Van Diemen & # 8217s Land (sekarang Tasmania) sekitar tahun 1825 hingga 1832
  • James Burgess, tukang roti, yang tiba di Van Diemen & # 8217s Land (sekarang Tasmania) sekitar tahun 1825 hingga 1832
  • Francis Burgess, banduan Britain yang disabitkan kesalahan di Norfolk, England selama 14 tahun, dibawa ke kapal & quotAsia & quot pada 29 September 1831, menetap di New South Wales, Australia [10]
  • John Burgess, banduan Britain yang dihukum di Norfolk, England selama 14 tahun, dibawa ke kapal & quotAsia & quot pada 29 September 1831, menetap di New South Wales, Australia [10]
  • . (Lebih banyak terdapat di semua produk Sejarah Lanjutan PDF dan produk bercetak kami di mana mungkin.)

Penghijrahan burger ke New Zealand +

Penghijrahan ke Selandia Baru mengikuti jejak penjelajah Eropah, seperti Kapten Cook (1769-70): pertama kali datanglah tukang sapu, paus, mubaligh, dan pedagang. Menjelang tahun 1838, Syarikat New Zealand Britain telah mulai membeli tanah dari suku Maori, dan menjualnya kepada para peneroka, dan, setelah Perjanjian Waitangi pada tahun 1840, banyak keluarga Britain berangkat dalam perjalanan enam bulan yang sukar dari Britain ke Aotearoa untuk memulai kehidupan baru. Pendatang awal termasuk:


Artikel-artikel ini memfokuskan pada aspek-aspek tertentu dalam kehidupan dan pekerjaan Anthony Burgess, termasuk biografinya, novel, muzik, filem, dan kepercayaan agama.

Anthony Burgess dibesarkan sebagai Katolik Roma, dan dia menghadiri dua sekolah Katolik di Manchester: Bishop Bilsborrow Memorial School di Moss Side (1923-1928) dan Xaverian College di Rusholme (1928-1935). Semasa kecil dia diberitahu bahawa ada seorang martir Elizabeth dalam keluarga ayahnya, Wilsons of Lancashire, walaupun tidak banyak bukti untuk membuktikan tuntutan ini. Kemudian, dalam sebuah karangan autobiografi yang disusun pada tahun 1977, dia mengatakan bahawa ada seorang martir Jacobite dalam keluarga ibunya dari Scotland. Syahid dan Katolik menjadi perhatian utama novelnya Gegaran Niat (1966), dan di Kekuatan Bumi (1980) tersirat bahawa rasionalis sekular Kenneth Toomey telah menjadi martir kepada sastera.

Melalui perkahwinan ayahnya dengan Margaret Dwyer, dia memperoleh keluarga tiri Katolik yang luas, termasuk dua sepupu, George dan James, yang menjadi imam. George Dwyer, seorang teolog terkenal yang berpendidikan di Rom, kemudian menjadi Uskup Leeds (dari 1957) dan Uskup Agung Birmingham (dari tahun 1965 hingga kematiannya pada tahun 1987). Ditanya oleh Bebas surat khabar untuk menamakan pahlawannya pada tahun 1989, Burgess memilih George Dwyer, yang digambarkannya sebagai & # 8216a prelatus Katolik Rom dalam tradisi Rabelaisian & # 8217.

Menulis mengenai zaman kanak-kanak Katoliknya di Salinan Segera, Burgess berkata: ‘Saya adalah seorang Katolik di sebuah negara Protestan, seorang Katolik Tua yang, sebagai seorang anak kecil, menganggap kepercayaan saya sebagai bukti diri dan tidak pernah sesekali membayangkan bahawa mereka adalah kepercayaan minoriti yang diserang. Tempat kelahiran saya adalah Manchester, dan Lancashire melakukan yang terbaik untuk menentang Reformasi. Guido Fawkes dan Robert Catesby telah berusaha meletupkan Parlimen bagi pihak penganut Katolik Inggeris. Betulkah kita kanak-kanak menikmati bunga api dan api unggun? Agama menghalangi persahabatan dan, ketika tiba waktunya cinta, cinta. '

Dalam Tuhan yang saya mahukan, disunting oleh James Mitchell pada tahun 1967, Burgess menulis: ‘Tuhan yang dibesarkan oleh agama saya kepada saya adalah Tuhan yang sepenuhnya berdedikasi untuk membahayakan saya. Itulah yang dikatakan oleh para penatua saya & # 8212 imam dan biarawati dan saudara-mara, serta katekismus sen. Penglihatan pendendam yang besar. '

Burgess mengalami krisis kepercayaan agama pada usia enam belas tahun, sebagian disebabkan oleh pembacaan James Joyce's Potret Artis sebagai Pemuda. Pada tahun 1965, ia mengingatkan kembali perbincangannya dengan para imam Jesuit di Gereja Nama Suci di Oxford Road di Manchester: 'Bersama saya, pada usia ketika saya tidak dapat melawan hujah-hujah Jesuit Nama Suci, itu adalah penderitaan yang tidak dapat dihindari sejak berlaku, nampaknya, bertentangan dengan kehendak saya. Sebagai pelajar sekolah Inggeris yang dibahas dalam sejarah Reformasi, saya menolak banyak Katolik Roma, tetapi naluri, emosi, kesetiaan, ketakutan, tersingkir. Joyce merangkumnya untuk saya Potret Artis, di mana Stephen Dedalus bercakap dengan rakan di luar universiti oleh tiang tiang mengenai penolakannya sendiri terhadap Gereja. '

Rasa buangan dan orang luarnya bertambah kuat ketika dia mengepos ke Gibraltar dari 1943 hingga 1946. ‘Saya bukan agen penjajah, sejak saya menjadi tentera. Saya bukan orang yang dijajah, sejak saya berbahasa Inggeris. Tetapi, sebagai seorang Katolik, saya mendapat tempat dalam prosesi Corpus Christi orang Gibraltari. Saya adalah sebahagian daripada jajahan tetapi saya selalu berada di luar. Tetapi saya dapat menyelesaikan unsur pengasingan baru dan berbeza dalam seni saya. '

Walaupun Burgess mengidentifikasi dirinya sebagai orang yang murtad dan 'tidak percaya' dari usia enam belas tahun, dia tidak dapat mengelak membahas subjek agama, baik dalam muziknya & # 8212 yang merangkumi banyak karya karya penyair Katolik & # 8212 dan dalam penulisan khayalannya. Sepanjang tahun 1970-an dan 1980-an, ia menghasilkan sebuah trilogi karya panjang tentang Musa, kehidupan Yesus Kristus dan Kisah Para Rasul: ini diterbitkan sebagai Musa: Naratif, Lelaki Nazaret dan Kerajaan Orang Jahat. Setiap buku ini disertakan dengan siri televisyen epik, yang ditulis oleh Burgess: Musa si Pengacara (dibintangi oleh Burt Lancaster), Yesus dari Nazaret (diarahkan oleh Franco Zeffirelli), dan IKLAN: Anno Domini.

Ditemu ramah oleh Kajian Paris pada tahun 1973, dia berkata: ‘Novel yang saya tulis benar-benar pemikiran Katolik abad pertengahan, dan orang tidak menginginkannya hari ini.’

Dalam wawancara yang sama dengan John Cullinan, dia bercakap tentang novelis Inggeris lain yang telah menggunakan Katolik sebagai bahan untuk fiksyen mereka: 'Orang Inggeris yang memeluk agama Katolik cenderung terpesona oleh glamornya dan bahkan mencari lebih banyak glamor di dalamnya daripada yang sebenarnya & # 39; 8212 seperti Waugh, mengimpikan bangsawan Katolik Inggeris lama, atau Greene, terpesona oleh dosa dengan cara yang sangat dingin. Hakikatnya ialah saya lebih suka umat Katolik yang bertobat kerana kebetulan mereka adalah novelis yang lebih baik. Saya cuba melupakan bahawa Greene adalah seorang Katolik ketika saya membacanya. Katolikisme Crouchback melemah Pedang Kehormatan dalam ertikata bahawa ia memusatkan buku. Kita memerlukan sesuatu yang terletak di bawah agama. '

Burgess menyimpulkan kedudukan agamanya dalam sebuah karangan, 'On Being a Lapsed Catholic' (1967): 'Saya mendapati bahawa saya tidak bertengkar dengan seluruh badan doktrin Katolik yang memberikan percikan iman, semua prinsip Gereja akan tahan untuk saya. Sesungguhnya, saya cenderung bersikap suci terhadap perkara ini, bahkan tidak senang dengan apa yang saya anggap sebagai kecenderungan berbahaya terhadap kelonggaran, murah, pengenceran ekumenis. '' Monarki Stuart dan ingin melihatnya dipulihkan, dan ketidakpercayaan dikenakan perubahan walaupun nampaknya menjadi lebih baik. '

Ditanya mengenai pandangan agamanya oleh Rosemary Hartill pada tahun 1989, Burgess berkata: 'Kristus menggunakan istilah "kerajaan surga" & # 8212 itu adalah kiasan. Saya rasa ia tidak merujuk kepada lokasi sebenar. Saya rasa ia adalah keadaan di mana seseorang telah menyedari sifat pilihan, dan seseorang memilih yang baik kerana seseorang tahu apa yang baik. '

Dia menambah: "Sekiranya tiba-tiba dinyatakan kepada saya bahawa eskatologi masa kecil saya adalah benar, bahawa ada neraka dan syurga, saya tidak akan terkejut."


Ideologi Bercanggah Anthony Burgess

Dystopia yang menganggu Anthony Burgess, A Clockwork Orange, telah dipuji oleh golongan liberal sebagai pameran A mengenai bagaimana masyarakat harus disalahkan kepada penjenayah. Pembunuhnya yang mencari kegembiraan Alex, setelah “disembuhkan” dari kecenderungan pembunuhannya disalahgunakan oleh masyarakat ketika dia kembali ke dunia nyata. Bagi dia untuk "mengatasi" masyarakat kriminal ini, proses yang menyembuhkannya terbalik, dan pembaca dibiarkan dengan kesan bahawa kecenderungan jenayah adalah satu-satunya cara untuk bertahan dalam masyarakat.

Tetapi penulis di sebalik novel “kita semua harus disalahkan” ini sebenarnya adalah seorang yang konservatif sosial. Burgess menginginkan monarki Katolik yang menjalankan pemerintahan Inggeris. Menurutnya, pandangan ini mempengaruhi tulisannya:

"Novel yang saya tulis adalah pemikiran Katolik abad pertengahan, dan orang tidak menginginkannya hari ini."

Walaupun menyatakan bahawa Yesus menggunakan surga sebagai "kiasan", Burgess memperhatikan kemungkinannya sebagai tempat yang sebenarnya:

"Sekiranya saya tiba-tiba terungkap bahawa eskatologi masa kecil saya adalah benar, bahawa ada neraka dan syurga, saya tidak akan terkejut."

Walaupun mengakui bahawa "perubatan bersosial adalah keutamaan di negara mana pun yang bertamadun hari ini," dia mengecam sosialisme sebagai "tidak masuk akal," dan menegaskan bahawa dia tidak percaya "memaksakan perubahan bahkan ketika tampaknya menjadi lebih baik."

Burgess membandingkan pandangannya tentang negara yang menginjak-injak hak individu dengan Kesatuan Soviet, yang kejahatan utama baginya adalah usaha jahat mereka untuk menjadikan manusia sempurna.

Dan dalam keadaan mengundurkan diri, penulis meninggalkan Britain atas 90 peratus cukai pendapatan golongan atas Burgess untuk menetap di negara pengasingan cukai Malta.

Tetapi pandangan libertarian Burgess terhadap pornografi meyakinkan keluarnya dari pulau itu pada tahun 1970-an.

Burgess menyatakan pandangan ini di hadapan penonton konservatif, yang menyiratkan bahawa Gereja Katolik Malta mempunyai "iman dan moral" yang "goyah" yang tidak dapat "menahan serangan gagasan baru."

Memetik Alkitab, Burgess menuduh Gereja melanggar "memberikan kepada Caesar apa itu Caesar" dengan bertindak baik sebagai "Caesar dan juga Tuhan." Dan dia berpendapat bahawa pornografi harus dinilai berdasarkan keseniannya.

Tetapi Burgess juga menyalahkan "pengaruh orang Arab dan Cina" pada apa yang disebutnya sebagai "rejim" pulau itu.

Pemerintah Malta mengesahkan kerjasama mereka dengan Gereja Katolik dengan merebut rumah Burgess ketika dia sedang bercuti.

& # 8220Ini adalah tindakan yang benar-benar pendendam - konfrontasi telanjang antara negara dan individu, "kata penulis.

Menyedari politik pengarang, dan dengan anggapan dia menyuntikkan pandangan konservatif / libertariannya ke dalam karya-karyanya (dalam satu, The Dustoped Seed, Burgess mengkritik homoseksual melalui contoh rejim yang memaksa warganya untuk menjadi gay untuk melaksanakan langkah-langkah kawalan penduduk), novelnya yang paling terkenal dapat dibaca sebagai kemarahan libertarian terhadap negara yang menginjak-injak hak-hak individu Alex dan mereka, bukan rakan sejawat Alex, yang merupakan penjahat sebenarnya.

Tetapi seseorang juga harus mengambil kira Katolik gaya abad pertengahan tanpa kompromi Burgess, kerana secara langsung bertentangan dengan libertarianisme penulis.

Sekiranya, seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Burgess, maksud pengarangnya dalam Clockwork Orange berpunca dari kepercayaan Katolik Abad Pertengahannya, maka Alex tidak akan direhabilitasi melalui gangguan pemikiran dan kemudian menjadi korban warganegara. Sebagai gantinya, Burgess & # 8217 menginginkan monarki Katolik yang akan mengorbankan Alex dengan membakarnya hidup-hidup.


Catatan pada teks

Menurut penulis biografinya, Andrew Biswell, Burgess mula merancang satu siri novel mengenai masa depan khayalan pada tahun 1960. Dalam "rencana paling awal yang masih ada" untuk novel itu, Burgess membuat sketsa sebuah buku sekitar 200 halaman, dibagi menjadi tiga bahagian masing-masing 70 halaman. Dia sendiri suka mengatakan bahawa dia menulis buku itu dalam tiga minggu, untuk menjana wang. Apa pun kebenarannya, dan dengan Burgess, anda tidak pernah tahu apa yang sebenarnya dan apa yang dia cipta pada masa ini, rancangan pertama Jarum Jam diselesaikan di bandar pantai selatan Inggeris, Hove pada tahun 1962. Menarik untuk diperhatikan bahawa generasi sebelumnya Graham Greene juga meneroka tema kejahatan, seperti yang dinyatakan dalam pemberontakan remaja dan kenakalan sosial, dalam hiburan "pantai selatan" sendiri, Batu Brighton.

Burgess telah kembali ke Britain pada tahun 1959 setelah beberapa tahun di luar negeri di Tanah Melayu untuk mencari, yang dia kecewa, banyak yang telah berubah. Budaya pemuda yang bersemangat dan ganas, dengan bar kopi, muzik pop dan geng remaja, telah menjadi tajuk utama surat khabar dan kegelisahan "negara-bangsa-bangsa" kelas menengah yang meluas.

Sebenarnya, banyak bahan sumber di Jarum Jam bertarikh 40-an, bukan 50-an atau 60-an. Burgess mengatakan bahawa inspirasi novel itu adalah isteri pertamanya yang mengandung Lynne yang dipukul oleh sekumpulan anggota tentera Amerika yang mabuk yang ditempatkan di England semasa perang. Dia kemudiannya keguguran. Burgess mengaitkan gelaran penangkapannya dengan berbagai kemungkinan asal: dia sering mendakwa bahawa dia telah mendengar ungkapan "sebagai aneh seperti oren jam" di sebuah pub London pada tahun 1945.

Kemudian, di televisyen pada tahun 1972, setelah novelnya menjadi terkenal, katanya, lebih samar-samar bahawa "tajuknya adalah. ungkapan yang saya dengar bertahun-tahun yang lalu ”. Dia mengatakan bahawa dia jatuh cinta dengannya dan mahu menggunakannya sebagai tajuk buku. Dia menolak cadangan yang dibuatnya: "Ungkapan 'seperti aneh seperti jam oren' adalah slang London timur lama yang baik. Sekarang, sudah tentu, saya memberikannya makna tambahan. Saya menyiratkan dimensi tambahan. Saya telah menyiratkan persatuan organik, meriah, manis - dengan kata lain, kehidupan, 'oren' - dan mekanikal, sejuk, berdisiplin. Saya telah menyatukan mereka dalam oxymoron seperti ini. " Kita juga harus merakam beberapa sumber yang menyatakan bahawa "tidak ada catatan ekspresi lain yang digunakan sebelum tahun 1962".

Buku ini mempunyai tiga bahagian, masing-masing dengan tujuh bab - anggukan yang disengajakan untuk usia 21 tahun sebagai usia majoriti. Bab ke-21 dikeluarkan dari edisi yang diterbitkan di AS sebelum 1986, mengorbankan kelengkapan falsafah untuk kemudahan naratif. Ketika Burgess pertama kali menjual buku itu kepada penerbit Amerika, WW Norton, dia diberitahu oleh penyuntingnya, Eric Swenson, seorang lelaki yang biasa saya tahu, bahawa penonton AS tidak akan pernah pergi ke bab terakhir ini di mana Alex melihat kesalahannya , memutuskan dia telah kehilangan keganasan, dan bertekad untuk mengubah hidupnya. Burgess mengizinkan Swenson untuk memotong bab terakhir penebusan dari versi AS, sehingga kisah itu akan berakhir dengan nada yang lebih gelap, dengan Alex menyerah pada sifatnya yang ganas dan sembrono.

Adaptasi filem Stanley Kubrick, yang biasa disebut oleh Burgess sebagai "Clockwork Marmalade", berdasarkan edisi AS ini. Kubrick menyebut bab 21 "bab tambahan", mendakwa bahawa dia tidak membaca versi lengkapnya sehingga dia menyelesaikan skripnya, dan tidak pernah mempertimbangkan dengan serius untuk menggunakannya. Dalam ingatan saya terhadap penulis, Burgess menghabiskan tahun-tahun terakhirnya dengan kerap mengecam versi filem novelnya dan semua yang berkaitan dengan kontrak, termasuk ejen sasteranya, mendiang Deborah Rogers.

Burgess adalah seorang lelaki yang luar biasa, campuran polimat dan karlatan. Kehidupan di sekelilingnya tidak pernah membosankan dan dia adalah antara orang paling asli yang pernah saya temui.


Anthony Burgess: Pengakuan perdagangan peretasan

Pengulas adalah pengkritik malas tidak. Pengulas dilihat oleh penulis tulen dengan campuran ramalan dan penghinaan. Status dan, sebenarnya, keadaan fizikal pengulas disimpulkan dalam artikel tren oleh George Orwell. Lelaki itu kelihatan lebih tua dari dia. Dia duduk di meja yang ditutup dengan sampah yang tidak berani diganggu, kerana mungkin ada cek kecil yang terletak di bawahnya.

Dia memulakan kerjaya sub-sastera sebagai sastera yang tulen, dengan harapan tinggi, aspirasi mulia. Tetapi dia telah tenggelam dalam keadaan hack. Dia telah mempelajari muslihat untuk mengkaji apa sahaja, termasuk buku yang dia tidak mempunyai harapan untuk memahami. Dia mendapat sedikit wang dan tidak mungkin mendapat penghargaan penghargaan negara untuk perkhidmatan sastera. Perkhidmatan untuk mengkaji tidak diiktiraf di Buckingham Palace atau di pejabat Perdana Menteri. Tikus yang hina ini, yang menggerogoti pinggiran sastera, hanya terpesona dengan menjadi salah satu kumpulan yang dikendalikan oleh seorang sasterawan. Atau, untuk menaikkan kiasan binatang, juga kandang penyunting sasteranya. Dalam gambar ini, istilah "hack" menemui konotasi yang tepat.

Penyunting sastera, secara keseluruhan, adalah anggota masyarakat yang dihormati. Mereka adalah lelaki sastera dalam erti kata bahawa pengulas tidak. Sekiranya kita bersedia untuk bercakap mengenai penyunting sastera yang hebat, kita mesti menamakan Terence Kilmartin yang lewat. Saya tidak pernah menjadi ahli pasukan pemeriksa bergaji yang datang dan pergi di Pemerhati, tetapi, sebagai penulis lepas, saya melakukan pekerjaan peninjauan apa yang dia minta dari tahun 1960 hingga tahun dia bersara - dan, tentu saja, seterusnya.

Oleh itu, saya mengenalnya selama kira-kira 30 tahun dan boleh bercakap mengenai sifatnya. Terry akan dikenang sebagai penyunting sastera hanya oleh kalangan pencinta buku yang agak sempit, pencapaiannya sebagai penterjemah memastikan dia menjadi orang ramai yang lebih besar untuk masa yang sangat lama. Ada masa ketika kita menganggap bahawa versi Scott Moncrieff A La Recherche du Temps Perdu adalah Proust Inggeris tertinggi. Kemudian Terry menunjukkan Scott Moncrieff di mana dia salah. Terry, pada pandangan saya, tidak menunggu pengurangan selanjutnya.

Apakah tugas penyunting sastera? Saya tidak pasti, tidak pernah menjadi satu, walaupun ada masanya, kira-kira 20 tahun yang lalu, ketika nampaknya saya mungkin mengambil alih halaman buku Kali atau Hari Ahad atau beberapa kertas seperti itu - pastinya bukan Cermin Harian atau Berita Dunia. Ini adalah pekerjaan sepenuh masa, dan saya menganggap pekerjaan sepenuh masa saya sebagai bahan untuk disunting oleh pengarang sastera kepada pengulas.

Tugasnya adalah surat khabar khas untuk mengubah buku menjadi semacam berita. Dari berjuta-juta peristiwa yang berlaku setiap hari, ada yang lebih bernilai daripada yang lain - manusia menggigit anjing, dan sebagainya. Oleh itu, beberapa buku lebih bernilai daripada yang lain. Terdapat kajian Victoria mengenai saliran bandar di Eccles Bau Kesucian yang tajuknya mencadangkan itu mungkin berita, tetapi penyunting sastera yang baik tidak pernah terpedaya dengan tajuk. Sekiranya terdapat berjuta-juta peristiwa, ada juga berjuta-juta buku, atau sepertinya. Pemilihan berita baru memerlukan lebih banyak kemahiran daripada yang dapat dibayangkan oleh pembaca surat khabar.

Bagi pembaca rata-rata tidak dapat membayangkan banyaknya buku yang diterbitkan sehingga dia benar-benar mengendalikannya. Pada tahun 1960-an saya terkejut apabila mengetahui berapa banyak novel yang diterbitkan dalam setahun. Ini adalah ketika saya diberi tugas sebagai editor fiksyen untuk Pos Yorkshire, jurnal yang sangat terkenal, banyak dibaca di lembah dan kelab wol dan besi. Saya harus mengemukakan artikel dua minggu sekali di mana lima atau enam buku baru harus diberi rawatan serius dan, dalam bentuk koda, 10 atau lebih yang lain memberikan penjelasan frasa - seperti 'Semua terlalu putdo yang dapat dipakai' atau, agak samar-samar, '' Untuk insomnia ', atau' India dikemas dalam poppadom 'atau' Sex on Ilkley Moor - baht lebih daripada 'at'. Ketika tugas bermula, pada bulan Januari 1960, saya merasa mungkin cukup mudah, kerana beberapa novel tiba. Saya lupa bahawa Tahun Baru selalu menjadi masa yang sukar untuk penerbitan. Seperti tahunnya berkembang, begitu juga fiksyen. Saya tinggal di sebuah desa kecil Sussex, dan kakitangan tambahan terpaksa dibawa ke pejabat pos tempatan untuk mengatasi banjir.

Bayaran untuk artikel dua minggu sekali sangat kecil - £ 6 dalam wang pra-perpuluhan - tetapi ganjaran sampingan itu cukup besar. Setiap Isnin pagi saya bergerak ke stesen keretapi tempatan, ditimbang dengan dua beg pakaian yang penuh dengan fiksyen baru. Penduduk kampung, yang ingatannya singkat, menganggap setiap kali saya meninggalkan isteri. Beg pakaian ini dikosongkan ke lantai ruang belakang Louis Simmonds, penjual buku di Strand. Dia membayar 50% dari harga jualan setiap buku, dengan catatan baru yang segar. Ini adalah wang tunai yang tidak dikenakan cukai, dan perjalanan saya ke Stesen Charing Cross biasanya tidak tetap.

Penjualan salinan ulasan tetap menjadi sumber pendapatan untuk peretasan: mereka akan hilang tanpanya. Beberapa peretasan yang benar-benar tidak senonoh - saya boleh memberikan nama tetapi saya tidak akan - pada masa mereka menjual salinan ulasan mereka tanpa membacanya, perlu begitu hebat. Kekacauan penerbit memberikan maklumat yang cukup untuk diproses menjadi notis yang berhati-hati. Apabila ulasan benar-benar memuji, kekurangan "bagaimanapun", anda mungkin menganggap bahawa buku tersebut belum dibaca oleh pengulas. Penemuan saya mengenai sebilangan besar novel yang diterbitkan di Britain sahaja, bagi saya, tidak membimbangkan kerana saya berusaha mencari nafkah utama daripada menambah jumlah itu. Pertandingan membuat hati saya gagal. Namun ada kalanya hati saya terangkat. Sebilangan besar novel yang dikemukakan untuk dikaji adalah keburukan yang hampir tidak dapat dipercaya. Tetapi mereka telah dicetak. Adakah penilaian estetik benar-benar beroperasi di rumah penerbitan? Tidak ada yang tahu.

Memandangkan, dalam kumpulan untuk dikaji semula, sebuah novel baru oleh Greene atau Waugh atau Powell atau Amis, saya tahu apa yang harus dilakukan, tetapi selalu ada kemungkinan beberapa genius baru muncul. Seseorang tidak berani mengabaikan apa-apa, walaupun ada contoh pengabaian yang mencolok dalam tahun-tahun penyuntingan sastera. VS Naipaul memberitahu saya bahawa novel pertamanya, yang kini dianggap klasik, tidak mendapat satu ulasan. Novel keempat saya gagal diperhatikan di beberapa hari minggu kelas atas, dan saya menganggap ini adalah konspirasi, yang mungkin.

Sekiranya anda meneliti arkib majalah yang kini tidak berfungsi Tumbuk untuk tahun 1922, anda akan mendapat ulasan tentang Sheila Kaye-Smith dan Ethel Mannin, tetapi tidak ada Ulysses atau Tanah Sampah.

Pada tahun 1939 hampir tidak ada ulasan mengenai Finnegans Bangun, walaupun Almarhum Malcolm Muggeridge menyumbangkan manifesto kebingungan sehingga saya lupa kertas apa. Jumlah kebingungan tidak teratur. Finnegans Bangun telah muncul dalam pamflet dengan judul umum Kerja dalam proses sepanjang tahun 1930-an, dan terdapat artikel-artikel eksegesis yang dipelajari di sekitar. Tetapi pernyataan seperti "Saya dapati ini jumlah besar omong kosong" sering dimaafkan dalam pengulas semata-mata. Keadaan berbeza bagi pengkritik.

Memang, sangat luar biasa bagi pengulas untuk bersikap seperti pengkritik, walaupun dengan majalah yang lebih berat yang tidak lagi ada, kedua-dua panggilan tersebut dapat dianggap sama. Kami mempunyai jumlah TS Eliot sebanyak Esei Terpilih, yang tidak lain hanyalah ulasan yang dicetak semula dari majalahnya Kriteria. Semasa saya sarjana, buku ini, bersama dengan William Empson Tujuh Jenis Kekaburan, adalah vade mecum. Oleh Eliot, ia dianggap boleh dipercayai. Di dalamnya terdapat penilaian pasti terhadap Marlowe, Shakespeare's Dusun, pengaruh Seneca pada Elizabethans, penyair Metafizik. Beberapa penjumlahan, selama bertahun-tahun, terbukti sangat sah. Sebagai contoh, Eliot mengatakan bahawa orang-orang Elizabeth mengambil bahagian lima tindakan dari Seneca. Tetapi lakonan Seneca tidak mempunyai peranan penting, mereka lebih cenderung mengambilnya dari Plautus. Epigramatik berfungsi dengan baik dalam ulasan tetapi tidak dalam karangan kritikal. Genius Marlowe disajikan sebagai komik dalam arti bahawa ia kembali ke beberapa tradisi asli gelap kuno, tetapi tradisi ini tidak pernah diberitahu, dan kita tidak pernah dapat menemukannya. Dusun mengemukakan masalah emosi yang melebihi kemungkinan penyebabnya, dan kami masih berteka-teki mengenai apa sebenarnya maksud Eliot. Masalahnya selalu ialah Eliot tidak boleh melakukan kesalahan. Dalam puisinya "Gerontion" dia menggunakan ungkapan "Di juvencence of the year / Came Christ the tiger". "Juvescence" salah itu harus "juvenescence", tetapi Eliot tidak akan diberitahu. Solecisme itu ada di Kamus Inggeris Oxford dan ia mesti diambil sebagai bentuk yang sahih. Saya sering disebat kerana mencambuk Eliot.

Pada hari-hari awal kajian, hari-hari Kajian Edinburgh, terlepas dari panjangnya artikel yang memberikan ruang dan waktu untuk eksposisi kritikal yang tulen, tradisi pemikiran dan perhatian yang tidak mencukupi dan, lebih dari itu, penyakit menular dan kebencian belaka nampaknya telah sepenuhnya terjalin. Seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Byron:

John Keats, yang dibunuh oleh satu kritikan,

Sama seperti dia benar-benar menjanjikan sesuatu yang hebat,

Sekiranya tidak difahami, - tanpa bahasa Yunani

Berusaha untuk membincangkan tentang dewa-dewa akhir-akhir ini

Sepertinya mereka sepatutnya bercakap. P

atau kawan! Nasibnya tidak diingini: -

"Peliknya fikiran, zarah yang sangat berapi itu,

Harus membiarkan dirinya disingkirkan oleh artikel.

Tidak diragukan lagi jika ada penulis yang tersingkir. Ulasan yang buruk, yang tidak dapat dipikirkan, boleh menyebabkan kemurungan mendalam dan kadang-kadang keheningan, yang dalam erti kata adalah kematian, pada penulis sensitif. Ini berlaku kepada penulis drama Christopher Fry, yang menyerah menghasilkan drama ketika diserang secara berterusan oleh pengulas jahat. Saya rasa, mesti memikirkan sedikit tentang istilah "niat jahat" itu, kerana diragukan jika ia boleh timbul dari teliti sebuah teks. Teks bukan orang, walaupun mungkin menunjukkan beberapa aspek keperibadian. Pengulas lebih suka keperibadian untuk sasaran mereka, bukan teks, dan ini mengaitkannya dengan rakan mereka di ruangan gosip.

Saya masih pintar dari tinjauan yang dikeluarkan oleh mendiang Geoffrey Grigson. Ketika melihat sejumlah karangan yang telah saya terbitkan, dia berkata: 'Siapa yang mungkin suka watak yang begitu kasar dan tidak menarik?' Saya rasa ini tidak adil dan tidak wajar. Malangnya, ini adalah perkara yang lebih disukai oleh penyunting sastera dasar daripada penekanan teks yang tidak peribadi.

Terry Kilmartin bukan salah satu pendorong niat jahat ini. Ketika dia melakukan kesalahan, jarang sekali membuat gosip yang membingungkan dengan penilaian artifak sastera yang serius atau separa serius. Dia seimbang, dan dia bahkan tidak melakukan kesalahan selera, kecuali pada satu kesempatan, ketika dia menjadi tajuk utama sebuah buku mengenai kedudukan wanita di Kerajaan Rom dengan "Lays of Ancient Rome".

Dengan diri saya, dia membuat kesalahan penghakiman yang masih sedikit menyakitkan. Ini muncul dari kesalahan penilaian saya sendiri ketika meninjau untuk Pos Yorkshire. Saya agak tidak senang membuang ulasan saya ke dalam keheningan yang kelihatan. Pembaca tidak pernah membalas ulasan saya. I received only one letter from a Pos Yorkshire reader, and that was a horticultural lady who responded to my incidental statement that British orchids had no smell. "They do, you know," she wrote, and instanced many odorous varieties.

This had nothing at all to do with literature. I got into the habit of throwing untenable judgments at my presumed readers, saying, for instance, that Barbara Cartland was much influenced by Molly Bloom's monologue at the end of Ulysses, or that one could descry the impact of DH Lawrence on Charles Dickens. Angry at the unangry silences, I determined to arouse some interest by reviewing a book of my own.

There was a precedent for this: Walter Scott had reviewed Waverley at great length in the Kajian Edinburgh and had not been trounced for it. There is something to be said for allowing a novelist to notice his own novel: he knows its faults better than any casual reader, and he has at least read the book. I published a novel entitled Inside Mr Enderby, which I'd issued under a pseudonym, and I reviewed this at some length in the Pos Yorkshire, pointing out how obscene, how fundamentally unclean the work was, and warning readers against reading it.

A gossip columnist in the Surat Harian picked up my act of immoral import and gleefully reported it. I was attacked by the editor of the Pos Yorkshire on Yorkshire Television and promptly, and perhaps justly, dismissed. But at that same time, I'd written for the Pemerhati an article appraising new books by VS Naipaul, Iris Murdoch and Brigid Brophy. This could not be published, since I was now untrustworthy and might conceivably be all these authors, and more, masquerading under the name Anthony Burgess, a name that was itself a masquerade. This tremor of distrust was not typical of Terry Kilmartin. The distrust, anyway, did not last. Journalists are quickly forgiven, and this may be taken as one of the signs of the essential ephemerality of journalism. As a character in Ulysses says, "Sufficient unto the day is the newspaper thereof."

But to return to this theme of malice. In his essay on the reviewer, Orwell made a very astute remark, to the effect that most books make no impression at all on the reviewer, and hence an attitude to the book must be contrived. One must fabricate a feeling towards something that arouses no feeling. Hence the conjuring of an attitude towards the author her or himself which, since the book has wasted one's time, might as well be one of malice. I personally show malice very rarely my general attitude towards any book, however bad, is one of vague sympathy. As one who writes books himself, I know how much hard work goes into authorship hence the sympathy, which is probably not good journalism. But I can well understand why some reviewers develop an attitude, when given a book which they may not well understand or become bored with reading.

I published a novel about contemporary Russia at the time of my disgrace, and this was reviewed at some length in the Negarawan Baru – I will not say by whom – and considered as a literary demonstration of my homosexuality. In those days it was still a crime to be homosexual, but I do not think that malice motivated my reviewer – perhaps rather the opposite, indicating the reviewer's sexual tropism. Perhaps, perhaps not.

This review came at a very opportune time. People rarely fall in love with me, or fell at the time when I was young enough to be fallable in love with. But at this time a lady dentist had interpreted, much in the manner of Katisha in The Mikado, my affability, a natural attitude to a dentist, as lovability, meaning a willingness to engage in an adulterous relationship. She proposed that we make love in her surgery, using the dentist's chair, and for all I knew various surgical instruments, as adjuncts to the act. It was very difficult to demur, since I was engaged in a fairly lengthy course of NHS treatment.

But my lady dentist regularly read the Negarawan Baru, and thus she discovered from the aforementioned review that I was homosexual. I was able to tell her that I had fought against this aspect of my personality but without success. She understood, or professed to, and the dental surgery retained its clinical purity. This was the only time when a review proved useful, indeed salvatory. I never had to prove homosexuality, which would have been difficult for one who is boringly normal. I offer this anecdote to prove nothing.

Nobody really understands why reviews do so little for books, while theatrical notices can, at least in New York, make or break a play. There was a time when Arnold Bennett could promote high success with a review in the Standard Petang. This has not happened since his day. The quite incredible success of A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking owes nothing to its reviews, though much to the newsworthiness of his physical condition. Its unintelligibility – as well as the physical condition of its author – is certainly a factor in its high sales record. Because, and this is particularly true in America, if a book is not easy to read it becomes a part of the furniture: the money paid out for it has not been wasted on an ephemeral and enjoyable object. TS Eliot said that a genuine writer should give up reviewing at the age of 35, nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita. This entails, presumably, relegating the craft to the young and ill-read, the trendy, the alternative comedian. It is because of the pain that ignorance causes that some of us keep on with the work of reviewing even in old age.

Of course, old age means forgetfulness, which looks very much like ignorance. But it is through being reviewed that one learns how much ignorance resides in the reviewer. And along with ignorance, carelessness.

When in 1960 I produced a novel that dealt with London's underclass, I was rebuked by a young Oxonian reviewer for using the term "kinky" — terribly old-fashioned. In fact, during the time of erotic leather gear, the word was coming back and I was a little before the trend. These annoyances are mere gnat-bites, but a multiplicity of gnat-bites feels like the onset of malaria.

Let us go back to the ringmaster of the reviewing animals and clowns. How does the literary editor decide what is to be reviewed and what not? One way of answering the question is to consider a definition of literature as the arrangement of language to an aesthetic end. It is, I think, true to say that the novels of Lord Archer, Dame Barbara Cartland and the late Dame Agatha Christie do not fall into the category of literature in this sense. Such writers are sometimes praised, though distractedly by people who should know better, because they get on with the action and do not let words get in the way of it.

In a sense it is quite impossible to review a novel by Frederick Forsyth, because it achieves perfectly what it sets out to do. The Fourth Protocol is perfection, as our last Prime Minister affirmed by reading it at least twice. The perfection depends on limitation. It does not dare the properties which we find, say, in William Shakespeare — complexity of character, difficulty of language, the exploitation of ambiguity.

Levels don't come into it, only categories. Lord Archer belongs to Category A, Mrs Woolf to Category B. Category A tries to soft-pedal language and bring the narrative as close to the cinematic as possible. Category B regards language as a narrative character. Here is the beginning of critical wisdom, and it has to drift down to the mere reviewer. The literary editor has to contrive a balance between the needs of the lover of literature and those of the mere reader of books. Increasingly the latter establish a priority.

Book reviewers ought to be read, forgotten, and then used, along with reports of trade deficits and child abuse, to light the kitchen fire. But, to their shame, they survive in bibliographical archives. American scholars make sure of that. I cherish, as I cherish chronic dyspepsia, some of the reviews of my work that have been put together by my own American bibliographer. I will cite examples of malice that are engraved on my heart, such as it is. "Why are Mr Burgess's books so loud?" – obviously a woman reviewer. "It seems a pity that Mr Burgess's book is so bad" – another. "There is too much sex in this novel, and we are all sick of Mr Burgess's scatology." "I yawned on the first page and would have yawned on the last, if I had ever reached it." "Mr Burgess would write better if he wrote less." Begitu seterusnya.

Should one fight back? Hugh Walpole used to do this, engaging in a kind of fisticuffs with Rebecca West, but he always got the worst of it. He also did what, in the persona of Alroy Kear, Somerset Maugham made him do in his novel Kek dan Ale. He would write to a reviewer to say that he was sorry he did not like his latest novel, but, if he might say so, the review was so well-written and contained so much good critical sense, that he could not forbear to drop him a line to say so. He does not want to be a bore, but if the reviewer is free any day next week, he, Alroy Kear, would be honoured if he'd accept a luncheon invitation at the Savoy.

As Maugham puts it, "No one can order a luncheon like Alroy Kear, and by the time the reviewer has eaten half a dozen oysters and a cut of some baby lamb, he has also eaten his words as well. So that it is not surprising that, in his review of Alroy Kear's next book, he has found a vast improvement in all departments of his novel-writing technique."

A writer who, in his spare time, conducts the craft of reviewing, is in a position to strike back. But to do so, as to indulge in reciprocal backscratching, is inglorious, totally unworthy. The editor of the Pos Yorkshire, a year after he'd sacked me from my lucrative post of fiction reviewer, produced a book on the Balfour Declaration and the birth of the state of Israel. I reviewed this book with unqualified praise in Country Life. The author was overjoyed and rather astonished. He was grateful for my magnanimity and invited me to lunch at the Reform Club. I was able to write back that he could keep his lunch: I liked his book and continued to dislike him. This is what is known as total objectivity of approach. Books are objects, not adjuncts of personality.

Objectivity of approach is a reviewer's right, privilege and duty. What he thinks of a book is something that subsists between the book and himself. Nor can he be told what to think and write. British literary editors, with, again, Terry Kilmartin as the supreme exemplar, are admirably disinterested in this respect. The New York Times sent me a rather boring spy novel by John le Carré, saying "As a special privilege, we are prepared to allot you 2,000 words to assess what is clearly an important book." I sent 400 words, which was about what the novel was worth. I was regarded as insulting the literary editor's taste and acumen: the author himself, of course, did not matter.

No, if one is to continue with the detestable craft of reviewing, detestable but necessary, one must maintain integrity. A book, however bad, has to be accorded sympathy, since it is so difficult a thing to produce there is no agony like the agony of writing badly. The good literary editor appreciates this, and it is a good thing for him to be confronted daily with the worse agony of trying to write well, or at least translate well.

Terry Kilmartin, giving us Marcel Proust for our time, was no Olympian residing above the sweat and headaches. Jorge Luis Borges liked to visualise heaven as a vast library, in which, his blindness cured, he was able to read for ever. I think that Terry, in whatever heaven has admitted him, will find less a library than a bureau, vast in extent, which daily, perhaps hourly, has new books dumped on its desks. The thrill of the new book, clean and shining, fresh from the binder, sustains both the reviewer and his master. Like the thrill of the sexual encounter, it does not last, but it can be renewed. And there is always the hope of a masterpiece. That's why we go on.

Literary editors live in a world of dilemmas. Journalism lives on compromise. I give a hypothetical example of the pain of choice. Two books came to me, not in my capacity as reviewer, on the same day. One was a biography of the British film producer David Puttnam responsible, among other things, for Chariots of Fire, an Oscar-winning masterpiece. The other was the record of a symposium on the so-called bad quarto of Dusun. I had no doubt which was the more important book. The Shakespeare scholars had come up with new facts. They had worked out what this traditionally disgraceful pirated version of Shakespeare's tragedy represented. It was a blaze of light on the dark world of scholarship.

But who, among the readers of the upmarket Sunday papers, would really care? Most, having seen the film Chariots of Fire, with an easily scratchable itch of curiosity about the state of the British cinema industry, would see this biography of Puttnam, despite its being ill-written and pedestrian, as – I use quotation marks – "relevant". It's clearly not the responsibility of literary journalism of an unspecialist kind to deal with the arcana of Shakespeare scholarship. And yet one regrets this.

In the same way, the reviewer himself must not pretend to too much learning, or use words not found in the Shorter Oxford. He may not even quote Latin. Reviewing, one is always holding back, trying not to displease too much, serving the ephemeral.

I revert to this business of the plethora of books — in Aldous Huxley's novel Point Counter Point it's referred to as "a bloody flux, like what the poor woman in the Bible had". There are so many, and one wonders why. One reason, of course is the need to keep the book technicians occupied. I write fairly regularly for a highly prestigious Italian newspaper called Il Corriere della Sera, published by Mondadori. Visiting Mondadori's printing works, I saw a new edition of Suetonius and a new Mickey Mouse compendium – Topolino in Italy – being printed. They were on the same rolling sheet presumably later they would be surgically split at the spine. The total indifference of the machine was what appalled. Let anything be printed so long as printing goes on.

The true horror that's implicit in the plethora is the disposability of books, like so much garbage. Books have to appear, but they also have to be destroyed to make room for more books. Keeping a book in print is damnably difficult. We used to have the naive conviction that if a book had value it would keep itself alive, would defy the burners and shredders and recyclers and, being the precious life blood of a master spirit, continue to circulate and nourish the body of civilisation. But this is not so. Lord Archer's books are alive, while his superiors breathe briefly, then gasp, then perish.

One of the tasks of the literate is less to conserve great books, or worthy books, than to resuscitate them. I remember some years ago, appearing on a highly elitist television programme in which passages from books were skilfully elocuted by actors and then named and allocated by a team of litterateurs. When a comic passage was read out and I did not know it, I said, for want of something better to say, "Oh, that's from the novel Augustus Carp Esq." Immediately the proceedings were held up while Robert Robinson and Sir Kingsley Amis cried simultaneously: "What, do you know that book?" There had been a silent and secret underground of admirers. This had the effect of getting the book briefly back into print. Must we do this for AEW Ellis's The Rack – a novel, on its appearance, hailed as superior to Thomas Mann's The Magic Mountain (it was about a tuberculosis sanatorium). It appeared in 1961, but not even its publishers remember it. How about the novels of Rex Warner, William Sansom, HG Wells, for that matter, which some of us urge on to a new public through laudatory prefaces? They breathe again briefly, then sink back into oblivion.

Meanwhile the flux continues — biographies, accounts of life in Provence, books of herstory as opposed to history, thigh and hip books, manuals of Kurdish cookery, brief histories of time. The literary editor, faced with the daily avalanche, has to choose, and often he chooses wrong. And ultimately it doesn't matter. What we read today tomorrow we burn. At the beginning of the second world war, Louis MacNeice wrote:

Die the thinkers, die the Jews

All the hungry, homeless queues,

Give us this day our daily news.

Or, if you like, Sunday news. The procession of what, by definition, is forgettable goes on, duly forgotten. Books, being part of the news, join the polluted stream that flows into oblivion.


Sutton Coldfield Local History Research Group

In Sutton in the 1630s religion was a hot topic - wars of religion had been rumbling on in Europe for thirty years, and there was a widespread sense that protestantism was under threat from the Roman Catholic church. The King James Bible of 1611 gave everyone who could read access to the scriptures, and in turn stimulated the desire to read in the population at large. Puritan ministers, such as Anthony Burgess, Rector of Sutton Coldfield, were concerned that the church hierarchy - King, archbishops, bishops - was imposing more and more ceremonial rules which smacked of popery, and everyone had a view on the issue.

Anthony Burgess was a preacher at a time when preachers could attract large crowds and when preaching was seen as tending to be subversive. Thomas Hall, the Kings Norton diarist, records that he was a diligent frequenter of the learned lectures of &ldquosundry orthodox divines&rdquo at Birmingham, and it was at Birmingham that Thomas Dugard, Master of Warwick School, on his way to Staffordshire, stopped to hear &ldquothe eminent preacher Anthony Burgess of Sutton Coldfield&rdquo. When the Civil War began in earnest in 1642, Burgess feared he would be a target for the Royalist forces, and moved to Coventry, a parliamentary stronghold, and then to London. He preached to Parliament on several occasions, urging the defence of the reformed church and the iniquity of the high church royalists.

He was a chaplain in the New Model Army, and although he returned to Sutton Coldfield when Parliament was victorious, he was often away - one of his duties under the Commonwealth was as &ldquoCommissioner for Warwickshire for the ejection of scandalous, ignorant and insufficient ministers and school-masters&rdquo. His sermons were in still in demand - he preached before the Lord Mayor of London in 1656, and many of his sermons were published. In 1657 his funeral discourse on the death of a Staffordshire minister &lsquoobtained a popularity which is reported to have been unprecedented even in that sermon-hearing era&rsquo.

Burgess, son of a Watford schoolmaster, was a fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and was presented to the Rectory of Sutton Coldfield in 1635. The Sutton Parish Register records the birth of five children to &ldquoMr. Anthony and Sarah Burgess&rdquo, and he is named as officiating at marriages in the 1650s. Riland Bedford wrote &ldquoHis personal character was of the highest. He was earnestly pressed by Bishop Hacket to accept a post of distinction in the Church after the Restoration & recommended for Bishop of Hereford, but his objection to the Episcopal form of church government prevented him from accepting the Act of 1662&rdquo. Burgess refused to subscribe to the 1662 Act of Uniformity and was ejected from the Rectorship of Sutton he was one of two thousand clergymen ejected for dissent at this time. He retired to Tamworth the Sutton Coldfield Parish Register reads &ldquo28 th September 1664 - Mr. Anthony Burgess late Pastor of Sutton Coldfield was buried in the church of Tamworth.&rdquo

Title Page of Anthony Burgess&rsquos &ldquoSpiritual Refining&rdquo, 1652, copied from the volume held in the collection of Sutton Reference Library

Every effort has been made to trace all copyright holders, but if any have been inadvertently overlooked the Group will be pleased to remedy any omission at the first opportunity. The Group acknowledges the assistance of Sutton Coldfield Reference Library in providing access to documents and for permission to include photographs from their archives, on this site.

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Free will and dystopias

If I were to compare it to other dystopian novels I have read, it felt most similar to 1984. It had similar threads of seeking some form of authentic life in the face of a repressive government or hopeless prospects. Dalam 1984, the protagonist Winston Smith finds reprieve in his mini-rebellions living with his girlfriend. Dalam Jarum Jam, Alex’s tastes are much less kept to himself: he goes out with his gang raping, beating, and stealing. Free will plays a central role in the novel, as it does in many dystopian novels.

There is an interesting commentary on socialist programs and “equity” theory. If everyone was given a fair chance to succeed– a good upbringing, enough to eat, a good home, educational opportunities, healthcare– then everyone in theory should succeed. Everyone is good at heart, right? But that’s not the case here. Alex’s officer in charge of him at school complains of his behavior:

What gets into you at all? We study the problem and we’ve been studying it for damn well near a century, yes, but we get no farther with our studies. You’ve got a good home here, good loving parents, and you’ve got not bad of a brain. Is it some devil that crawls inside you?

The problem is people have this inconvenient thing called free will. You can give them all the opportunity you want, but it still won’t guarantee that they will become productive citizens.

The government doesn’t really play a large part of the story until Part 2. And unlike 1984, the government isn’t quite a totalitarian state, but it seems clearly on the fast track to becoming one. One character comments: We’ve seen it all before in other countries. The thin edge of the wedge. Before we know where we are we shall have the full apparatus of totalitarianism… Some of us have to fight. There are great traditions of liberty to defend. I am no partisan man. Where I see the infamy I seek to erase it. The tradition of liberty means all. The common people will let it go, oh yes. They will sell liberty for a quieter life. That is why the must be prodded–. That sounds awfully like Hayek’s discussion of how true freedom is being sold for something politicians like to call “economic freedom” today.

I don’t want to include any spoilers here. I will say that any Latter-Day Saint readers will be very familiar with some of the concepts of free will discussed here. There’s a really neat passage where a chaplain is talking to Alex about free will: What does God want? Does God want goodness or the choice of goodness? Is a man who chooses bad perhaps in some way better than a man who has good imposed upon him? Deep and hard questions… It leaves you with a bit of ambivalence, because the book confronts you directly with the consequences of free will. Is free will worth it when it can cause so much pain? And this book doesn’t pose it in the abstract. You are following the “protagonist” who engages in such heinous crimes and describes them in such gory detail. You get all his horrible thoughts too. And then somehow, the author gets you to feel sorry for the guy!


The restless soul of Anthony Burgess

When future generations look back on the career of Anthony Burgess (1917-93), they may well decide that his many earthly attainments—as novelist, critic, broadcaster, linguist, composer, educator, social provocateur and sometime morale problem to the British Army—pale into insignificance next to a far more important legacy: Burgess’s contribution to the debate about man’s proper relationship to his Creator and especially his own troubled but enduring connection to the Catholic Church.

The church obsessed him. I know this because Burgess himself (who once remarked of his church-going neighbors, “I want to be one of them, but wanting is not enough”) both denied this and proceeded to talk about little else when I met him in 1987, while he was visiting London from his tax exile in Monaco to promote his autobiography Little Wilson and Big God.

Burgess, perhaps still best known for his dystopian novel Jarum Jam, had a Chestertonian love of paradoxical aphorism: “Only when things are pulled apart may they be connected” is one I recall. Or: “Music may best be judged by the resonance of its silence.” Add Burgess’s mad-scientist demeanor, the twin headlamps of his eyes bulging out from the shock of snowy hair, and the amount of booze he put away during our hour together, and you can see why hardened Fleet Street journalists spoke in awe of his frequent mood swings and occasional tantrums. For all his harrumphing admonishments, however, I have to say he was kindness itself during our time together—effusively signing my copy of his 1982 fantasy, The End of the World News.

Though ‘lapsed,’ Anthony Burgess was obsessed with the church.

Burgess was raised as a Roman Catholic in the austere world of post-World War I northern England. He described his background as lower middle class and “of such character as to make me question my worth to God, and his to me, from an early age.” Burgess’s mother, Elizabeth, died when he was only a year old, a victim of the global flu pandemic, just four days after the death of his 8-year-old sister, Muriel. Burgess believed that he was resented by his father, Joseph, a shopkeeper and pub pianist, for having survived. “I was either distractedly persecuted or ignored,” he wrote of his childhood.

He attended local Catholic schools and went on to read English at the University of Manchester. He graduated in 1940 with a second-class degree, his tutor having written of one of his papers, “Bright ideas insufficient to conceal lack of knowledge.”

“As an English schoolboy, I came to reject a good deal of Roman Catholicism, but instinct, emotion, loyalty, fear, tugged away.”

A watershed occurred in Burgess’s already chaotic adolescence when, at the age of 16, he read James Joyce’s Potret Artis sebagai Pemuda. In fact, he told me, it was one of the three “emotional rips” of his early years. (The other two involved young women.) Joyce’s Künstlerroman proved to be the defining moment of a life Burgess himself never grew tired of laying bare, even if the psychological striptease was performed with more insight and aplomb than that of the average celebrity narcissist.

Writing of this period in 1965, Burgess recalled his discussions with the Jesuit priests at the Church of the Holy Name near his home in Manchester. “With me,” he wrote, “at an age when I could not counter the arguments of the Jesuits, [life] was unavoidable agony since it was all happening, it seemed, against my will. As an English schoolboy brought up on the history of the Reformation, I came to reject a good deal of Roman Catholicism, but instinct, emotion, loyalty, fear, tugged away.”

A ‘Lapsed’ Catholic Obsessed With the Church

Endless problems arose when Burgess began his wartime service in the British Army, a period that further fueled his lifelong sense of being utterly different from everyone else. Of his three-year posting to the British Mediterranean outpost of Gibraltar, he wrote: “I was not quite an agent of colonialism, since I was a soldier. I was not quite one of the colonised, since I was English. But, being a Catholic, I had a place in the Corpus Christi processions of the Gibraltarians. I was part of the colony, and yet I would always be outside it. But I could resolve my elements of new and different exile in my art.”

After a belief in his own cleverness, this sense of being aloof or apart was Burgess’s central conviction about himself and a lifelong theme. He was always looking for it—whether as an “unreconstructed High Tory” in 1960s Swinging London or as a “robust English patriot” who chose to live the last half of his life in exile. Burgess’s idea of a good holiday was to sit on the sun-kissed grounds of a Tuscan villa writing fondly of Manchester in the winter. “I am a contrarian,” he admitted.

Nowhere was Burgess’s impressive ability to annoy both ends of the spectrum on a particular subject better demonstrated than in his religion. Although he proudly identified himself as an “unbeliever” from the age of 16, he continually returned to spiritual themes, whether in his novels, his poems or his screenwriting of the acclaimed 1977 miniseries “Jesus of Nazareth.” Burgess told me in 1987 that this aspect of his life was “an endlessly scratched itch.” Not that he ever for a moment identified with other prominent Roman Catholic authors of his generation (again shunning the lure of the club), telling The Paris Review in 1973 that he felt himself to be “quite alone. the novels I’ve written are really medieval Catholic in their thinking, and people don’t want that today.”

Unlike him, Burgess continued, even the greatest of English Catholic writers “tend to be bemused by the Church’s glamour, and even look for more glamour than is actually there—like [Evelyn] Waugh, dreaming of an old English Catholic aristocracy, or [Graham] Greene, fascinated by sin in a very cold-blooded way. I try to forget that Greene is a Catholic when I read him. Crouchback’s Catholicism weakens [Waugh’s] Sword of Honour in the sense that it sentimentalises the book. We need something that lies beneath religion.”

About 50 years ago, the British comedian Peter Cook performed a sketch about the doggedly reclusive Greta Garbo in which, adorned by a blonde wig, he stood up in the back of an open-topped car shouting “I vant to be alone!” through a megaphone. Burgess gave the same impression of wanting it both ways when he insisted that he was not the least bit obsessed with the subject of religion.

“I am very far from consumed by curiosity about man’s proper relation to his Maker, let alone the eschatological sanctions of the Roman Church,” he told me when we met, in language that perhaps suggests the opposite was true. In February 1967, when he turned 50, Burgess felt moved to write a syndicated essay that he titled “On Being a Lapsed Catholic.”

It was almost as though annoying his fellow Catholics was a solemn Christian duty.

It was not that Burgess had become any less worthy, charitable or compassionate, he insisted in his essay, after ceasing to believe. Jauh dari itu. “The desire to be good. has attained a sharp relish through being more an end in itself,” he wrote. “I have sinned against the Commandments of the Church, but so has the greater part of mankind.” It was almost as though annoying his fellow Catholics was a solemn Christian duty. After condemning the church for its intransigence and vowing never to return, Burgess then rebuked the church for the loosening of its traditional moral guardrails in the 1960s.

“Indeed, I tend to be puristic about [this],” Burgess wrote, “even uneasy about what I consider to be dangerous tendencies to slackness, cheapness, ecumenical dilutions. My cousin is an archbishop when I went to his enthronement I was appalled at the pedestrian nature of the English liturgy, the demotic sickliness of ‘Soul of My Saviour’, which I had thought the Church to have long discarded as a shameful bit of cheap sugar, and the general weakening of the nobility of the Mass—once either gorgeously baroque or monastically austere.”

The fact that he had once called on the Catholic Church to become more “relevant,” Burgess seemed to be saying, was no reason to assume he actually wanted it to happen. As he once wrote, “I’m a Jacobite, meaning that I’m traditionally Catholic, support the Stuart monarchy and want to see it restored, and distrust imposed change even when it seems to be for the better.” Asked about his religious views later in life, Burgess said: “I don’t think the kingdom of heaven is a real location. I think it is a state of being in which one has become aware of the nature of choice, and one is choosing the good because one knows what good is.”

Characteristically, Burgess added, “If it was suddenly revealed to me that the eschatology of my childhood was true, that there actually was a hell and a heaven, I wouldn’t be surprised.”

‘I Will Opine on Almost Anything’

Something of this same casuistry can be seen in the pages of Burgess’s published canon, most famously his panoramic novel Earthly Powers. The book’s decidedly unreliable narrator, 81-year-old Kenneth Toomey (the Burgess alter ego) is essentially agnostic, in contrast to his friend Carlo Campanati, who sees life as part of a cosmic jest of unfathomable cruelty and who goes on to be elected pope. “A saint,” Campanati says, “has to modify the world in the direction of being more aware of the presence of God in it.” An author, Toomey’s priorities are different: “I can’t accept that a work of fiction should be either immoral or moral. It should merely show the world as it is and have no moral basis.”

Some critics saw Earthly Powers as a profound rumination on good and evil and, more particularly, a satirical tour d’horizon of everything from the Nazis to gay marriage as seen through the eyes of Campanati, the dates of whose papal election and death correspond to those of Pope John XXIII. Might it be, however, that the book is less of a scholarly meditation on sin per se and more an occasion for Burgess to indulge in the sort of verbal fireworks he did better than any other contemporary writer?

Burgess is perhaps still best known for this dystopian novel, A Clockwork Orange. Here men at the 2016 Venice Carnival are dressed as characters from the film version of the book. (Photo: AP)

When I politely asked him about this, he exhaled a great cloud of cigarillo smoke and laughed at the question. “My dear boy,” he said at length, “I will opine on almost anything to pay the bills.” Indeed, I found that in the years immediately before publishing Earthly Powers, Burgess had gone into print with a Time-Life guide to New York City, a verse novel about Moses and a book review that dwelt at length on the minutiae of car maintenance in winter. “It is all one to me,” he announced. There was no particular merit to writing about the papacy as opposed to “discussing the optimum brand of antifreeze for the family Ford.”

That, I think, was Burgess all over. He wanted it both ways and every way—the lapsed Catholic who, like one of his characters in 1962’s The Wanting Seed, takes “a sort of gloomy pleasure in observing the depths to which human behavior can sink” and the overgrown schoolboy who reveled in his own powers of invention, which frequently veered toward the parodical or even cartoonish, and for whom the great questions about man’s purpose on earth were merely another occasion for the pyrotechnic display of his fabulous literary gifts.


Works:

The Works of Anthony Burgess available in old English:

1. A Demonstration of the Day of Judgment, against Atheists & Hereticks … Preached at St. Pauls, May 11. 1656. 12vo. pp. 70. For T. Underhill: London, 1657.
2. The Difficulty of, and Encouragements to a Reformation : A sermon preached from Mark i. 2, 3, before the Honourable House of Commons, at the publike fast, Septem. 27. 1643. 4to. pp. 28. R. Bishop for Thomas Underhill: London, 1643.
3. The Doctrine of Original Sin, Asserted & Vindicated against the old and new Adversaries thereof, Socinians, Papists, Arminians, and Anabaptis ts. And practically improved for the benefit of the meanest capacities. To which is added a digressive Epistle concerning Justification by Faith alone, etc. Folio. pp. 555. Abraham Miller for Thomas Underhill: London, 1659.
4. An Expository Commentary on the whole first Chapter of 2 Cor. Folio. pp. 697. London, 1661.
5. Judgments Removed, where Judgment is Executed : A sermon preached from Psalm 106:30-31 to the Court-Martial in Lawrence-Jury, London, 5th of Sept. 1644. Being the day of their solemn seeking of the Lord for his blessing upon their proceedings. 4untuk. pp. 13. M. Simmons for Thomas Underhill: London, 1644.
6. The Magistrate’s Commission from Heaven: Declared in a sermon preached from Rom. 13:4. in Lawrence-Jury, London, the 28th of Sept. 1644. at the election of the Lord Major. 4untuk. pp. 20. George Miller for Thomas Underhill: London, 1644.
7. One Hundred and forty-five Expository Sermons upon the whole 17th chapter of the Gospel according to John : or, Christ’s Prayer before his Passion explained, and both practically and polemically improved. Folio. pp. 672. Abraham Miller for Thomas Underhill: London, 1656.

8. Paul’s last Farewell, or a Sermon, preached at the Funerall of…Mr. Thomas Blake . . . With a funeral Oration made at Mr. Blake’s death by Samuel Shaw, etc. 4to. pp. 24. For Abel Roper: London, 1658.
9. Publick Affections, Pressed in a sermon preached from Numb. 11:12 before the Honourable House of Commons…upon the solemn day of Humiliation, Febr. 25. 1645. 4to. pp. 23. J. Y. for Thomas Underhill: London, 1646.
10. The Reformation of the Church to be endeavored more than that of the Common-Wealth: declared in a sermon preached from Judges 6:27-29. before the Right Honourable House of Lords, at the publike fast, Aug. 27. 1645. 4to. pp. 27. G. M. for T. Underhill: London, 1645.
11. Rome’s Cruelty and Apostacie: declared in a Sermon preached from Rev. xix. 2. on the 5th of November, 1644, before the Honourable House of Commons. 4untuk. pp. 21. George Miller for Tho. Underhill: London, 1645.
12. The Scripture Directory, for Church Officers and People: or, A Practical Commentary upon the whole third chapter of the first Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. To which is annexed the Godly and the Natural Man’s Choice, upon Psal. 4. vers. 6-8. 4untuk. 2 pt. Abraham Miller for T. U.: London, 1659.
13. Spiritual Refining: or, A Treatise of Grace and Assurance. Being CXX sermons, etc. Folio pp. 696. A. Miller for Thomas Underhill: London, 1652.
14. Spiritual Refining: Part 2. or, A Treatise of Sin, with it’s Causes, Differences, Mitigations, and Aggravations. 4untuk. pp. 368. London, 1654.
15. A Treatise of Self-Judging, in order to the worthy receiving of the Lords Supper. Together with a Sermon of the generall Day of Judgement. 12vo. 2 pt. J. H. Underhill & M. Keinton: London, 1658.
hlm. The True Doctrine of Iustification Asserted and Vindicated, from the Errors of Papists , Arminians, Socinians, and more especially, Antinomians: In thirty lectures preached at Lawrence-Iury, London. Part I. 4to. pp. 275. Robert White for Thomas Underhill: London, 1648.
q. The True Doctrine of Justification asserted & vindicated from the Errours of many, and more especially Papists and Socinians. Or, a Treatise of the Natural Righteousness of God, and Imputed Righteousness of Christ. (A Treatise of Justification. Part II). 4untuk. pp. 456. For Thomas Underhill: London, 1654.
r. Vindiciae Legis: or, A Vindication of the Morall Law, and the Covenants, from the Errours of Papists, Arminians, Socinians, and more especially, Antinomians: In twenty-nine lectures, preached at Lawrence-Jury, London. 4untuk. pp. 271. James Young for T. Underhill: London, 1646