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Kongres menghadap Benedict Arnold untuk kenaikan pangkat


Pada 19 Februari 1777, Kongres Kontinental memilih untuk mempromosikan Thomas Mifflin, Arthur St. Clair, William Alexander, Lord Stirling, Adam Stephen dan Benjamin Lincoln ke pangkat jeneral jeneral. Walaupun promosi itu bertujuan sebahagiannya untuk mengimbangi jumlah jeneral dari setiap negeri, Brigadir Jeneral Benedict Arnold merasa direndahkan bahawa lima pegawai junior menerima kenaikan pangkat di hadapannya dan, sebagai tindak balas, mengancam akan mengundurkan diri dari tentera Patriot.

Dalam surat bertarikh 3 April 1777, Jenderal George Washington menulis surat kepada Arnold dari ibu pejabatnya di Morristown, New Jersey, dan mengaku bahawa dia terkejut, ketika saya tidak melihat nama anda dalam senarai Jeneral Jeneral. Memikirkan bahawa peninggalan nama Arnold adalah satu kesalahan, Washington tidak menggalakkan Arnold yang kecewa daripada mengambil Langkah yang tergesa-gesa.

Agar kecewa Arnold, dia segera mengetahui bahawa ketua komandannya itu salah, dan dia menyerahkan pengunduran dirinya kepada Kongres pada bulan Julai 1777, tetapi menariknya atas desakan Washington. Walaupun mendapat sokongan George Washington, Arnold terus merasa tidak diingini oleh atasannya. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1780, Arnold mengkhianati negaranya dengan menawarkan untuk menyerahkan kubu Patriot di West Point, New York, kepada British. Dengan West Point dalam kawalan mereka, Inggeris akan menguasai Lembah Sungai Hudson yang kritikal dan memisahkan New England dari kawasan jajahan lain. Isterinya, Margaret, adalah seorang Loyalis dan tidak akan membantah rancangannya. Namun, rancangannya digagalkan, dan Arnold, pahlawan Ticonderoga dan Saratoga, menjadi pengkhianat paling terkenal dalam sejarah Amerika. Dia terus berjuang di pihak British dalam Revolusi dan, setelah perang, kembali ke Britain, di mana dia meninggal dunia di London pada tahun 1801.

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Benedict Arnold

Profesor James Kirby Martin meneroka bagaimana George Washington dan Benedict Arnold, yang pernah bersaudara, menjadi musuh pahit.

Seorang Jeneral di Tentera Kontinental semasa Perang Revolusi, Benedict Arnold berkhidmat dengan perbezaan dalam beberapa pertempuran tetapi beberapa kali diturunkan untuk kenaikan pangkat. Arnold juga disiasat oleh Continental Congress semasa berkhidmat dan menghadapi pelbagai tuduhan dari pihak lawan. Rasa kecewa dengan penentangan yang dihadapinya, Arnold akhirnya mula bekerja untuk Inggeris walaupun terus berkhidmat di Angkatan Tentera. Akhirnya pengkhianatannya ditemui dan Arnold melarikan diri ke New York City, menerima komisen dalam Tentera British. Nama Arnold telah menjadi sinonim dengan tingkah laku khianat dan mungkin salah satu tokoh paling terkenal dalam sejarah Amerika.

Benedict Arnold dilahirkan pada tahun 1741 dari keluarga Connecticut yang terkemuka. Arnold kehilangan sebahagian besar adik-beradiknya akibat demam kuning, peristiwa bencana yang mencetuskan alkoholisme pada ayahnya. Sebagai remaja, keluarga Arnold menghadapi kesulitan kewangan. Pada usia enam belas tahun, Arnold mendaftar dalam milisi dan berkhidmat dalam Perang Perancis dan India di New York. Pada tahun 1760-an, Arnold memulakan perniagaan apotek yang berjaya.

Peranan Arnold sebagai ahli perniagaan terkemuka membawanya ke konflik langsung dengan kedua-dua Stamp Act dan Sugar Act, di mana pemerintah Britain berusaha untuk mengatur dan memaksakan transaksi perniagaan penjajah. Arnold bergabung dengan Sons of Liberty dan meneruskan perniagaannya menentang tindakan British, dengan berkesan menjadi penyeludup. Dia terpilih untuk menjadi kapten di milisi Connecticut pada tahun 1775, dan berpartisipasi dalam pengepungan Boston, penangkapan Benteng Ticonderoga, dan Pertempuran Saratoga di mana dia mendapat luka kaki.

Walaupun mendapat perkhidmatan ini, Arnold menjadi tumpuan permusuhan dari pelbagai pegawai di Continental Army. Arnold mengemukakan aduan terhadap Moses Hazen yang membawa ke mahkamah mahkamah. Selepas itu, Hazen menaikkan caj kaunter. Arnold juga terlibat dalam konflik dengan John Brown dan James Easton. Sebagai tindak balas Brown menerbitkan sebuah risalah yang mendakwa Arnold, "Wang adalah tuhan orang ini, dan untuk mendapatkan cukup itu dia akan mengorbankan negaranya." 1

Setelah dilantik untuk kenaikan pangkat ke jawatan Mejar Jeneral, Arnold mengundurkan diri. George Washington, bagaimanapun, menolak untuk menerima penarikan tersebut. Tidak lama kemudian, Arnold turut serta dalam Pertempuran Saratoga, di mana dia sekali lagi cedera di kaki kirinya, kaki yang sama yang pernah cedera sebelumnya. Tidak lama kemudian, Washington melantik komandan tentera Arnold di Philadelphia, di mana percubaannya untuk mendapatkan keuntungan dari kedudukannya dilakukan oleh pegawai tempatan. Pada tahun 1778 dan 1779, Arnold menyatakan kekecewaan dan pesimisme terhadap prospek Amerika Syarikat, dan bukti menunjukkan bahawa dia bersekongkol dengan Inggeris dengan menukar maklumat ketenteraan yang sensitif dengan wang. Walaupun dibebaskan dari pengadilan, Arnold ditegur oleh Washington, yang menyebut tingkah lakunya "tidak bijaksana dan tidak wajar." 2

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Arnold melepaskan jawatannya di Philadelphia dan akhirnya mendapat komando di West Point di mana dia mengadakan rundingan rahsia dengan British. Dia memindahkan wang kepada pasukan Inggeris dan menyampaikan maklumat yang akan membantu pihak Inggeris dalam merebut West Point, sambil melemahkan pertahanan kubu dan mengurangkan bekalannya.

John Andre, kenalan British di Arnold, ditangkap dan akhirnya dilaksanakan kerana peranannya dalam plot tersebut. Arnold menghindari penangkapan oleh Amerika dan akhirnya melarikan diri ke England. Arnold berkhidmat dalam tentera Inggeris selama perang, dan kemudian terlibat dalam perniagaan di Kanada dan Inggeris sehingga kematiannya pada tahun 1801. Sejak itu, namanya menjadi identik dengan kegagalan moral, pengkhianatan, dan kepentingan diri yang jahat. Warisannya yang kompleks, bagaimanapun, tercermin dalam peringatan luar biasa baginya di Taman Bersejarah Nasional Saratoga. Tugu peringatan itu terdiri daripada patung kaki yang terlepas dalam but, yang menyinggung kepahlawanan Arnold di Saratoga dan luka kaki yang dialaminya di sana. Walau bagaimanapun, patung itu tidak mempunyai namanya.

Katie Uva
Pusat Siswazah City University of New York

Catatan:
1. Dipetik dalam James Kirby Martin, Benedict Arnold, Pahlawan Revolusioner: Seorang Pahlawan Amerika Ditimbangkan Semula (New York: NYU Press, 2000), 324.


Kongres menghadap Benedict Arnold untuk promosi - 19 Feb 1777 - HISTORY.com

TSgt Joe C.

Pada hari ini pada tahun 1777, Kongres Kontinental memilih untuk mempromosikan Thomas Mifflin Arthur St. Clair William Alexander, Lord Stirling Adam Stephen dan Benjamin Lincoln ke pangkat jeneral utama. Walaupun promosi itu bertujuan sebahagiannya untuk mengimbangi jumlah jeneral dari setiap negeri, Brigadir Jeneral Benedict Arnold merasa direndahkan bahawa lima pegawai junior menerima kenaikan pangkat di hadapannya dan, sebagai tindak balas, mengancam akan mengundurkan diri dari tentera Patriot.

Dalam surat bertarikh 3 April 1777, Jenderal George Washington menulis surat kepada Arnold dari ibu pejabatnya di Morristown, New Jersey, dan mengaku bahawa dia terkejut, ketika saya tidak melihat nama anda dalam senarai Jeneral Jeneral. Memikirkan bahawa peninggalan nama Arnold adalah satu kesalahan, Washington tidak menggalakkan Arnold yang kecewa daripada mengambil Langkah yang tergesa-gesa.

Agar kecewa Arnold, dia segera mengetahui bahawa ketua komandannya itu salah, dan dia menyerahkan pengunduran dirinya kepada Kongres pada bulan Julai 1777, tetapi menariknya atas desakan Washington. Walaupun mendapat sokongan George Washington, Arnold terus merasa tidak dihiraukan oleh atasannya. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1780, Arnold mengkhianati negaranya dengan menawarkan untuk menyerahkan kubu Patriot di West Point, New York, kepada British. Dengan West Point dalam kawalan mereka, Inggeris akan menguasai Lembah Sungai Hudson yang kritikal dan memisahkan New England dari kawasan jajahan lain. Isterinya, Margaret, adalah seorang Loyalis dan tidak akan membantah rancangannya. Namun, rancangannya digagalkan, dan Arnold, pahlawan Ticonderoga dan Saratoga, menjadi pengkhianat paling terkenal dalam sejarah Amerika. Dia terus berjuang di pihak British dalam Revolusi dan, setelah perang, kembali ke Britain, di mana dia meninggal dunia di London pada tahun 1801.


Bagaimana luka Arnold dari Pertempuran Saratoga masuk ke arahnya untuk mengkhianati perjuangan Amerika?

The & quotBoot Monument & quot di Saratoga Battlefield. Tugu ini menandakan lokasi di mana Benedict Arnold cedera semasa pertempuran.

Pasti faktor. Cedera parah di kaki yang sama di mana dia mengambil luka pertama yang mengerikan di Quebec, Benedict Arnold marah dan kesal selama lebih dari empat bulan di hospital tentera patriot di Albany, NY. Dia punya banyak waktu untuk memikirkan berapa banyak penderitaan yang dia lalui setelah diturunkan untuk mendapatkan pangkat yang lebih tinggi, penghinaan yang menyakitkan adalah nama baik sebagai seorang patriot yang berbudi luhur, dan di samping berapa banyak yang telah dia korbankan dari segi penggunaannya sendiri kekayaan untuk menyokong perjuangan Amerika.

Lebih-lebih lagi, dia telah meninggalkan kerjayanya yang lumayan sebagai pedagang / peniaga yang beroperasi di New Haven, CT. Kongres telah mengembalikan pangkatnya sebelum Saratoga tetapi bukan kekananannya. Ketika Washington menulis Benedict Arnold yang masih menderita pada Januari 1778, setelah kemenangan besar di Saratoga, bahawa Kongres akhirnya mengembalikan kekananannya, Arnold tidak segera bertindak balas. Dia sangat marah kerana Kongres telah memberikan pingat kepada Horatio Gates sebagai "pahlawan Saratoga" yang diduga ketika Arnold telah benar-benar memberikan kepemimpinan lapangan dalam kedua pertempuran yang memimpin Amerika menuju kemenangan.

Ketika Benedict Arnold bertindak balas kepada Washington, dia mengatakan bahwa dia berharap komandan di kepala dalam "tugasnya yang berat" untuk "melihat keamanan dan kebahagiaan dikembalikan ke negara Anda secara kekal." Dalam kegelisahannya yang semakin meningkat, Arnold memisahkan dirinya dari sebab di mana dia kehilangan kepercayaannya. Dia mengirim surat ini ke Washington pada bulan Mac 1778, dua setengah tahun sebelum dia menyerah sepenuhnya pada perjuangan Amerika.


Dari Mejar Jeneral Benedict Arnold

Setuju dengan nasihat Excellencys anda kepada saya ketika di Kem, saya meminta Kongres untuk melantik Jawatankuasa untuk Memeriksa Tuduhan yang ditangguhkan terhadap saya oleh Presdt dan Majlis Negeri ini permintaan saya dipatuhi, Laporan Komite yang saya miliki mengambil kebebasan untuk Ikut, setelah meneliti dengan teliti, Tuan Yang Terutama akan terkejut apabila mendapati Kongres telah mengarahkan Mahkamah Pengadilan untuk mengadili saya (di antara Tuduhan lain) kerana beberapa daripadanya Komite mereka, telah membebaskan saya dengan cara yang paling jelas dan jelas dan Perilaku ini mungkin diperlukan Untuk Kepentingan Umum, Sukar untuk mendamaikannya dengan Perasaan Individu yang dengan itu terluka.2

Dengan alamatnya, Mr Reed telah menunda-nunda hubungannya selama Hampir dua Bulan, dan akhirnya memperoleh Resolusi Kongres di atas, dan adakah saya tidak ragu lagi, Gunakan setiap Artifis untuk Menunda proses Pengadilan Tentera kerana ia adalah kepentingannya Perselingkuhan harus terus berada dalam kegelapan Dan Kongres untuk mengelakkan pelanggaran dengan Negara ini, telah Menolak, Memutuskan Laporan Komitmen mereka, Saya Tidak ragu untuk mendapatkan Keadilan dari Mahkamah Bela Diri, kerana setiap Pegawai Tentera mesti merasa dirinya Terluka oleh perlakuan kejam dan belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya yang saya temui dari sekumpulan Scoundrils di Office. Saya mesti dengan sungguh-sungguh Mintakan Tuan Yang Terutama agar Pengadilan Tentera diarahkan untuk duduk secepat mungkin, Sekiranya dapat dilakukan di Bandar ini, saya akan menganggapnya sebagai nikmat besar kerana luka saya membuatnya sangat tidak selesa, untuk saya hadir di Kem di mana sangat sukar untuk mendapatkan penginapan yang diperlukan untuk pemulihan mereka. Ini juga akan sangat ketara jika tidak praktis untuk menghasilkan di Camp the Evidences, yang semuanya ada di Bandar ini — Tetapi sekiranya perkhidmatan itu menjadikannya benar-benar perlu bahawa Mahkamah harus diadakan di Kem, saya mohon agar seawal mungkin masalah Untuk itu mungkin, dan bahawa Presiden dan Majlis Negara ini mungkin mempunyai Pemberitahuan tersebut, bahawa Mahkamah tidak boleh ditangguhkan kerana menginginkan Tambang Bukti mereka akan siap pada Pemberitahuan Terpendek.

Apabila Tuan Yang Terutama Menganggap Penderitaan saya, dan Situasi Kejam yang saya alami, Kemanusiaan dan perasaan anda sendiri sebagai Tentara, akan menjadikan setiap perkara yang dapat saya katakan lebih jauh mengenai Subjek itu tidak perlu. Saya mohon penghormatan yang terbaik kepada Puan Washington dan saya mempunyai sentimen Penghormatan yang sempurna

1. Arnold membiarkan tarikhnya kosong, tetapi surat itu telah diterima kerana telah diterima pada 18 April.

2. Arnold telah menulis surat kepada Kongres pada 8 dan 12 Februari yang meminta perbicaraan dan siasatan atas tuduhan yang telah diajukan terhadapnya dalam surat 25 Januari dari Presiden Majlis Eksekutif Pennsylvania Joseph Reed ke Kongres, dan dalam suatu tindakan yang disahkan oleh Pennsylvania pada 3 Februari. Kongres membaca surat Arnold pada 15 Februari dan segera memutuskan untuk meminta GW mengadakan mahkamah tentera untuk mengadili jeneral. Pada 16 Februari, surat itu merujuk surat Arnold kepada sebuah jawatankuasa lima orang yang telah meneliti tuduhan yang terkandung dalam surat Reed pada 25 Januari, dan ia menangguhkan Arnold dari komando tentera sehingga nasibnya ditentukan (keterangan JCC bermula Worthington Chauncey Ford et al., Ed. Jurnal Kongres Kontinental, 1774-1789. 34 jilid. Washington, DC, 1904–37. Keterangan berakhir, 13: 184, 188–89).

Salinan terlampir "Laporan Komite Kongres yang Dilantik untuk Meneliti Tuduhan yang Dipamerkan terhadap Jeneral Arnold oleh Presiden dan Dewan Negara Pensilvania," yang ditandatangani oleh ketua panitia William Paca, merangkum kesimpulan komite, yang disampaikan kepada Kongres pada 17 Mac: “Tuduhan Pertama, Kedua, ketiga, dan Kelima adalah Kesalahan yang hanya dapat dilakukan dalam Mahkamah Tentera, bahwa Tuduhan Keempat adalah Kesalahan yang hanya bersifat Sipil dan Dapat Diuji hanya di Pengadilan Umum, yaitu Ketujuh Ketujuh , dan Tuduhan Kelapan adalah Kesalahan yang tidak dapat dicoba oleh Mahkamah Bela Diri atau Mahkamah Common Law, atau Tertakluk kepada Hukuman lain selain Ketidakpuasan Kongres dan Akibatnya.

"Bahawa Komite itu dilengkapi dengan Bukti oleh Majlis Eksekutif Tertinggi pada Tuduhan kelima dan Ketujuh yang mereka minta izin untuk dirujuk, bahawa Komite Majlis Eksekutif yang disebut itu berulang kali memohon untuk menolak untuk memberikan Keterangan pada Selebihnya Tuduhan selepas aplikasi Tanpa Buah Selama tiga minggu selama beberapa Surat berlalu antara Majlis Eksekutif Tertinggi dan Komite, di mana Surat-surat Majlis Eksekutif Tertinggi mengancam Komite dan Menuduh mereka dengan Separa.

"Menyelesaikan bahawa Tuduhan Pertama dan Kedua Tidak ada Bukti yang cenderung membuktikan yang Sama, bahawa Tuduhan tersebut dijelaskan sepenuhnya dan Penampilan yang Mereka Bawa Kejahatan sepenuhnya dihilangkan dengan Bukti yang Tidak dapat dipertanyakan.

"Tuduhan ketiga yang Diakui oleh Jenderal Arnold dalam Satu Masa, untuk disampaikan kepada Panglima.

"Memutuskan bahawa Surat Rekomendasi dalam Pertuduhan ke-6 tidak berada dalam semangat Resolusi Kongres, atau perampasan otoritas.

"Memutuskan bahawa Surat dalam Tuduhan ke-7 agar tidak dalam Ketentuan Kesopanan Sempurna namun tidak dinyatakan dalam Ketentuan Kehormatan, dan setelah Perilaku Majlis Eksekutif Sd Supreeme terhadap Sd Jeneral Arnold, dan langkah-langkah yang tidak diambil contoh yang mereka ambil untuk memperoleh kepuasan, sepenuhnya dan benar-benar menghalangi semua Hak atas Konsesi atau pengakuan.

"Menyelesaikan tuduhan ke-8 bahawa tidak ada bukti yang membuktikannya. Tuduhan keempat tidak ada Bukti untuk membuktikan yang Sama dan bahawa itu hanya dapat dicoba di Mahkamah Common Law.

"Tuduhan kelima yang akan dikirimkan kepada Panglima Besar" (DLC: GW laporan itu dicetak dalam keterangan JCC bermula Worthington Chauncey Ford et al., Ed. Jurnal Kongres Kontinental, 1774-1789. 34 jilid. Washington, DC , 1904–37. Keterangan berakhir, 13: 324–26). Walaupun jawatankuasa tersebut mendapati banyak tuduhan terhadap Arnold tidak terbukti dan telah mengkritik kurangnya kerjasama Pennsylvania dalam siasatan itu, Kongres, yang berusaha memperbaiki pelanggaran yang meluas dengan Reed dan dewan, tetap menyelesaikan pada 3 April bahawa "aduan terhadap Jenderal Arnold diserahkan kepada Yang Mulia Komandan Panglima, agar diadili dan hal yang sama diberitahu kepada dewan eksekutif dan mereka diminta untuk memberikan bukti yang ada pada Komandan Panglima itu yang mereka miliki dan semua proses yang lebih jauh di tempat lain berhenti, simpan pengumpulan dan kirimkan bukti lebih lanjut mengenainya kepada Panglima Besar ”dengan kata lain, perbicaraan akan berlanjutan (penerangan JCC bermula Worthington Chauncey Ford et al., ed. Jurnal Kongres Kontinental, 1774-1789. 34 jilid Washington, DC, 1904–37. Keterangan berakhir, 13: 414–16 lihat juga John Jay hingga GW, 12 April).

GW mematuhi ketetapan ini pada 20 April dengan memerintahkan mahkamah tentera (lihat surat-suratnya pada tarikh itu kepada Arnold, John Jay, dan Majlis Eksekutif Tertinggi Pennsylvania). Yang menjadi keprihatinannya, masalah itu tidak berakhir di sana, tetapi berkembang menjadi perselisihan yang berlarut-larut dan mengancam yang akan merosakkan hubungan GW dengan pemerintah Pennsylvania dan pada masa yang sama mengasingkan Arnold secara kekal. Pada 24 April, Joseph Reed menulis sepucuk surat kepada GW yang mengadu bahawa dia telah salah menafsirkan peranan Majlis Eksekutif Tertinggi Pennsylvania dalam memilih tuduhan terhadap balasan Arnold GW yang tersinggung dan sama panjangnya pada 27 April hanya sebahagiannya membuat salah faham itu berehat (lihat GW kepada Reed , 8 dan 15 Mei Reed ke GW, 1 Mei dan Majlis Eksekutif Tertinggi Pennsylvania ke GW, 8 Mei).

Sementara itu, percubaan GW untuk menetapkan tarikh awal untuk perbicaraan, yang awalnya ditetapkan untuk 1 Jun, terhalang setiap masa oleh kekacauan birokrasi dan gerakan musuh. Walaupun mahkamah bertemu pada 1 Jun cukup lama untuk Arnold membantah kehadiran tiga anggotanya, sebuah dewan perang bertemu pada hari itu dan memutuskan untuk menangguhkan perbicaraan selama-lamanya kerana tindakan British menaikkan Sungai Hudson (Majlis of War, 1 Jun, DLC: GW). "Saya tidak dapat," tulis GW kepada Timothy Matlack pada 2 Juni, "menetapkan waktu ketika Mahkamah akan bersidang, kerana ia mesti bergantung pada operasi Musuh" (PHi: Dreer Collection). Mahkamah tidak bertemu sehingga 20 Disember 1779 (lihat GW hingga Arnold, 4 Disember, DLC: GW, dan Perintah Am, 19 Dis.). Ia mencapai keputusan pada 26 Januari 1780, ketika ia membebaskan Arnold dari kebanyakan tuduhan terhadapnya, tetapi mendapati dia bersalah kerana melepaskan tugas atas dua perkara yang agak kecil (lihat Perintah Am, 6 April 1780). Kongres mengesahkan keputusan pada 12 Februari (Penerangan JCC bermula Worthington Chauncey Ford et al., Ed. Jurnal Kongres Kontinental, 1774-1789. 34 jilid. Washington, DC, 1904–37. Keterangan berakhir, 16: 161–62 ), tetapi menunggu sebulan lagi sebelum meneruskannya kepada GW, yang diminta untuk menegur Arnold dalam perintah umum. Dia melakukannya pada 6 April 1780, tetapi pada masa itu kerosakan telah terjadi: Arnold, yang marah dengan apa yang dianggapnya sebagai konspirasi terhadapnya, telah memulakan hubungan rahsia dengan Inggeris pada akhir musim bunga tahun 1779. Lihat GW kepada Arnold, 26 dan 28 April, 7 dan 15 Mei, 2 Jun (DLC: GW), dan 4 Disember (DLC: GW) 1779 Arnold ke GW, 5, 14, dan 18 Mei, dan 13 Julai (DLC: GW) 1779 dan Samuel Huntington ke GW, 11 Mac 1780 (DLC: GW).


Sejarah A.S .: Benedict Arnold: Dia Coulda Menjadi Pesaing

Namanya segera memanggil gambar pengkhianatan oleh cahaya lilin. Tetapi apa sebenarnya yang dilakukan oleh Benedict Arnold buat?

Nah, dia melakukan hubungan dengan mata-mata dengan menggunakan rakan-rakan pro-setia isterinya, dia memberitahu Inggeris tentang lokasi pasukan pemberontak dan bekalan yang dia ambil alih kubu di West Point untuk pemberontak, kemudian diam-diam melakukan segala yang dia mampu untuk melumpuhkannya dan dia menjual kelemahan kubu itu kepada British. Dan itu hanya untuk permulaan. Setelah muslihat terakhir terdedah, Arnold melarikan diri dengan kapal Inggeris sebelum dia digantung. The Brits menyedari potensi Arnold dan memberinya beberapa kedudukan tentera yang cukup kuat - dia memimpin 1.600 Redcoats dan setia pada siri serangan yang menghancurkan di Virginia dan serangan sengit di pelabuhan pemberontak New London, Connecticut, yang dia bakar ke tanah.

Tetapi dia boleh menjadi Pahlawan Amerika sekiranya kadnya dibagikan sedikit berbeza. Pada tahun 1775, Arnold dan Ethan Allen adalah komandan ekspedisi yang menawan Fort Ticonderoga. Kemudian pada tahun 1777, walaupun jumlahnya lebih banyak, Arnold melakukan pertarungan sengit untuk Danau Champlain dan kemudian menimbulkan banyak kerosakan sebelum mundur di Battle of Ridgefield. Dan semasa Pertempuran Saratoga klimaks, Arnold mengambil dua pasukan: dia ditembak di kaki oleh peluru Britain dan kemudian dihancurkan di bawah kudanya yang jatuh.

Semasa terbaring di tempat tidur dan kesakitan, Arnold merenungkan bagaimana keadaan buruk: pencapaiannya di Ticonderoga tewas dalam pertempuran politik mengenai siapa yang akan memuji kemenangan (pemenang: Ethan Allen), dan usaha kepahlawanannya di Lake Champlain dan Saratoga pergi tidak dikenali kerana mereka secara teknikalnya kalah.

Pada Februari 1777, Kongres Kontinental menyerahkan Arnold untuk kenaikan pangkat, memberikannya kepada pegawai junior sebagai gantinya. Arnold akhirnya dinaikkan pangkat, tetapi Kongres tidak akan memberikannya kekananan, yang bermaksud dia masih tunduk kepada pegawai junior.

Untuk menambahkan penghinaan terhadap kecederaan, Arnold kemudian menghadapi kempen smear oleh musuhnya di Kongres Kontinental (tuduhan itu mungkin sedikit benar, tetapi apa pun). Sebagai gabenor tentera Philadelphia, Arnold membuat perjanjian perniagaan orang dalam yang mendapat keuntungan dari penyediaan peruntukan kepada tentera pemberontak. Ketika peniaga dan ahli politik tempatan memprotes perbuatannya yang korup, Arnold menuntut mahkamah tentera untuk membersihkan namanya. Dia dibebaskan dari semua tuduhan kecil kecuali dua, tetapi tuduhan ini masih mendapat teguran dari Washington. Tidak berapa lama kemudian, akauntan Kongres mengira bahawa, setelah perbelanjaan untuk kempen di utara ditingkatkan, Arnold berhutang £ 1,000 kepada mereka.

Itu lebih kurang apabila Arnold menghidupkannya. Tetapi Benedict nampaknya tidak berteman di mana sahaja dia pergi: dia akhirnya terkunci dengan keputusan penting oleh pegawai elit British, lalu dia kehilangan banyak wang dalam urusan perniagaan yang buruk dan mempunyai rentetan keputusan yang membimbangkan, termasuk bertengkar dengan anggota Parlimen dan dibakar dalam khayalan oleh penduduk bandar di St. John.

Mencari kandungan yang lebih hebat seperti ini? Anda bernasib baik - Sejarah Mental Floss Amerika Syarikat mencecah rak buku berdekatan anda pada 5 Oktober! Sekiranya anda membuat pra-pesanan, anda akan mendapat tiga terbitan percuma mental_floss majalah. Dapatkan semua butiran di sini.


Ulasan mengenai Jubah pusingan

Jubah pusingan melakukan pekerjaan yang sangat baik menggunakan kedua-dua dokumen dan naskah yang diterbitkan untuk membuat kes bahawa, sementara Arnold adalah watak yang bertentangan yang keberanian dan karismanya bertentangan dengan kesombongan dan sifat melayani dirinya, dia secara peribadi mempercayai kejujuran tindakannya dari 1779 hingga 1781…. Prosa itu menarik dan pantas, dan perspektif baru ini mengenai perang [Revolusi] memberi pembaca banyak pemikiran. " - Ahli Sejarah

"Kesimpulan Brumwell & # 8217s disokong dengan teliti oleh penyelidikan & # 8230 Jubah pusingan bukan latihan akademik yang tersumbat. Ditulis dengan baik, mudah diakses oleh sarjana dan orang awam, biografi ini mengembalikan manusia kepada kehidupan orang bajingan. " & # 8211 Tambahan Sastera Times

"Brumwell adalah pencerita yang menawan & # 8230 ini adalah buku cerdas, cerdas, yang dapat dinikmati oleh pembaca kasual dan para sarjana Arnold." & # 8211 Jurnal Revolusi Amerika

"Sejarawan yang berubah menjadi wartawan, Brumwell telah melengkapkan arkib di sana-sini untuk menghasilkan potret pahlawan Perang Revolusi Amerika yang paling lengkap dan seimbang yang, pada puncak kejayaan dan kemasyhurannya, pergi ke Inggeris, dan namanya kemudian menjadi di Amerika julukan untuk pengkhianatan paling hitam dan kejahatan yang hampir tidak dapat dijelaskan. " - Jurnal Heythrop

"Jubah pusingan melukis gambar menarik Arnold & # 8230 dia jelas seorang yang mempunyai banyak bakat dan Brumwell, walaupun tidak memaafkan pengkhianatannya, banyak membantu manusia. " Penganalisis CIA John Ehrman, Kajian dalam bidang Perisikan

"Turncoat menawarkan perspektif baru dan unik, dan wawasan yang menjadikannya buku penting untuk semua pembaca dengan semangat untuk mengungkap sejarah sebenar Revolusi Amerika." - Sejarah Tentera Darat

& # 8220 Kajian teliti Brumwell, model keilmuan dan wawasan manusia (bukan kualiti yang sering dijumpai bersama), memberikan pandangan revisionis yang meyakinkan sama sekali mengenai kes Arnold. Semasa dia menganalisisnya, beberapa setengah faktor turut berlaku, mendorong Arnold ke arah pengkhianatan. Pada akhirnya, Brumwell menyatakan, tingkah laku Arnold terlalu manusiawi. Dengan analisisnya yang luar biasa mengenai kes Arnold, Brumwell telah menulis sebuah buku yang meletakkan paranoia Amerika yang terkenal tentang pengkhianatan menjadi perspektif. & # 8221 Frank McLynn, Kajian Literatur

& # 8220A kisah baik yang retak & # 8230 menawarkan bukti baru dan hujah yang kuat mengenai alasan sebenar di sebalik pengkhianatan Arnold terhadap gerakan kemerdekaan Amerika. Sekiranya anda menyangka semuanya berkaitan dengan wang, Brumwell akan membuat anda berfikir semula. Penceritaannya mengenai cara yang tidak disengajakan di mana pengkhianatan yang dirancang terbongkar, dan apa yang berlaku seterusnya, berbunyi seperti lakon layar Hollywood yang menarik, ia adalah penggemar kuku sinematik yang benar. Sekiranya anda peminat Sejarah Amerika, buku ini adalah "jangan ketinggalan" - dan jika anda suka mendengar ke Sejarah Amerika anda, versi buku audio saya akan memberi anda kira-kira 17 jam perendaman dalam kisah benar yang luar biasa. & # 8221 Andrew Sellon, pelakon & perawi buku audio & # 8216Turncoat & # 8217

& # 8220Mr. Brumwell, sejarawan ketenteraan dan penulis biografi George Washington, berpusat & # 8216Turncoat & # 8217 pada konspirasi 1780 & # 8211 di mana Arnold memainkan peranan penting & # 8211 untuk memberikan West Point kepada British dan mungkin memungkinkan penangkapan George Washington & # 8217. Dengan cerdik menyusun kisah itu ke dalam sejarah ketenteraan Revolusi Amerika yang lebih besar, Mr. Brumwell dengan jelas melakar watak dan menceritakan episod penting. Dia berpendapat bahawa Arnold menganggap dirinya sebagai seseorang yang berusaha memperbaiki hubungan antara Britain dan Amerika, menyambut baik syarat-syarat yang menghilangkan alasan pertengkaran yang asal. Ringkasnya, dia tergerak oleh sesuatu yang lebih rasional daripada menjengkelkan dan kurang kecil daripada kebencian. & # 8221 William Anthony Hay, Jurnal Wall Street

& # 8220Kisah ini mempunyai segalanya: Terdapat mata-mata dan kaunter, penangguhan dan panggilan dekat, seorang wanita cantik, jeneral Britain yang tampan dan menawan, dan Alexander Hamilton. Sungguh mengagumkan bahawa Hollywood tidak melakukan usaha serius untuk menyesuaikannya dengan layar. & # 8221 Gordon S. Wood, Standard Mingguan

& # 8220Benar-benar ditulis dan kaya dengan perincian, naratif Brumwell menjelaskan pengkhianatan Benedict Arnold dengan membawanya pada kata-katanya - bahawa pengkhianat Revolusi mengubah mantelnya untuk menyelamatkan Amerika dari perang saudara yang berdarah dan penyebab patriot sesat. Kesimpulan Brumwell sama provokatifnya kerana Arnold kontroversial. Bacaan yang mencengkam. & # 8221 Mark Edward Lender, pengarang bersama Fatal Sunday yang memenangi anugerah

& # 8220Penilaian Benedict Arnold yang paling seimbang dan mendalam sehingga kini. Dengan menggunakan sumber manuskrip segar, Brumwell menegaskan kembali kepentingan penting agensi manusia dalam sejarah. & # 8221 Edward G. Lengel, pengarang Jeneral George Washington, dan penyunting Papers of George Washington

& # 8220Gripping & # 8230 Buku yang bagus ini menempatkan Benedict Arnold dalam beberapa konteks: isu pengkhianatan dan pengkhianatan tidak setia sebagai konsep politik dan hubungan kejahatan antara kehormatan, reputasi, politik, dan perang dan cobaan 1780 untuk semua orang yang terlibat dalam Revolusi Perang. Pada saat tuduhan pengkhianatan dan ketidaksetiaan mengganggu politik harian kita, Jubah pusingan adalah bacaan penting. & # 8221 R. B. Bernstein, City College of New York

& # 8220Ditulis dengan rahmat dan bakat oleh sejarawan ketenteraan terkemuka, Jubah pusingan meneliti karier Benedict Arnold sebagai tentera di kedua-dua belah pihak semasa Perang Kemerdekaan. Dengan berbuat demikian, Brumwell telah menulis kajian mendalam mengenai perang dan makna Revolusi Amerika itu sendiri. & # 8221 Francis D. Cogliano, pengarang Revolusi Amerika

Ahli sejarah Brumwell (George Washington: Pahlawan Gentleman) memberikan penjelasan provokatif untuk salah satu misteri Revolusi Amerika: mengapa Benedict Arnold, salah satu "bawahan Washington yang paling terkenal dan dihargai," menjadi pengkhianat pada tahun 1780? Brumwell menolak teori yang paling umum: bahawa Arnold merasa tidak dihormati oleh Kongres Kontinental, yang menyerahkannya untuk kenaikan pangkat walaupun mempunyai rekod prestasi yang mengagumkan sebagai komandan tentera, atau keserakahan itu adalah pendorong utamanya. Sebagai gantinya, Brumwell memuji pernyataan Arnold sendiri bahawa dia merasakan bahawa tawaran kepada pemberontak untuk mengakhiri pertempuran adalah asli dan memuaskan, dan bahawa pembelotannya bertujuan untuk menyatukan kembali Kerajaan Inggeris yang retak. Menyokong kesnya dengan bukti seperti tulisan pegawai Britain, John Simcoe, Brumwell masuk akal sebagai tanggapan berlawanan dengan intuisi bahawa kedudukan Arnold bukanlah sesuatu yang pinggiran, tetapi sebenarnya "gejala ketidakpuasan yang jauh lebih luas" di kalangan penjajah. Dia juga menceritakan lengkungan hidup Arnold dan mengingatkan para bukan spesialis bahawa kemenangan Amerika akhirnya tidak dapat dielakkan. Pembaca yang berfikiran terbuka akan menghargai pandangannya yang tidak setuju bahawa Arnold mungkin "benar-benar memiliki kesejahteraan negaranya," pandangan yang Brumwell percaya "berhak dipertimbangkan dengan teliti dalam setiap pemeriksaan semula yang seimbang terhadap pengkhianat Amerika yang paling terkenal." Penerbit Mingguan (ulasan berbintang)


Kandungan

Benedict Arnold dilahirkan pada tahun 1741 dalam keluarga yang baik di bandar pelabuhan Norwich di jajahan Connecticut di Britain. [1] Dia berminat dalam urusan ketenteraan sejak usia dini, bertugas sebentar (tanpa melihat tindakan) di militia kolonial semasa Perang Perancis dan India pada tahun 1757. [2] Dia memulakan kerjaya sebagai ahli perniagaan, pertama kali membuka sebuah kedai di New Haven, dan kemudian terlibat dalam perdagangan luar negara. Dia memiliki dan mengendalikan kapal, berlayar ke Hindia Barat, Quebec dan Eropah. [3] Ketika Parlimen Britain mulai mengenakan cukai ke atas tanah jajahannya, perniagaan Arnold mulai dipengaruhi oleh mereka dan kegiatan penjajah menentang cukai tersebut, yang menyebabkan dia akhirnya bergabung. [4] Pada tahun 1767, dia berkahwin dengan Margaret Mansfield, dengan siapa dia mempunyai tiga orang anak, salah satunya meninggal pada masa kecil. [5] [6]

Pada bulan Mac 1775, sekumpulan 65 penduduk New Haven membentuk Syarikat Pengawal Connecticut Kedua Gabenor. Arnold dipilih sebagai kapten mereka, dan dia mengatur latihan dan latihan sebagai persiapan perang. [7] Pada 21 April 1775, berita sampai di New Haven mengenai pertempuran pembukaan revolusi di Lexington dan Concord. Syarikat Arnold ditubuhkan untuk berarak ke Boston pada keesokan harinya, tetapi dewan bandar tidak akan melepaskan mesiu kepada mereka. In a confrontation between Arnold and David Wooster that is reenacted in New Haven every Powder House Day, Arnold successfully argued with the older man that he would take the powder one way or another. The magazine was opened, Arnold's company was armed, and they marched off to Boston. [8]

During the march, Arnold encountered Connecticut legislator and militia Colonel Samuel Holden Parsons. They discussed the shortage of cannons in the revolutionary forces and, knowing of the large number of cannons at Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain, agreed that an expedition should be sent to capture the fort. [9] Parsons continued on to Hartford, where he raised funds to establish a force under the command of Captain Edward Mott. Mott was instructed to link up with Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys at Bennington in the disputed New Hampshire Grants territory (now Vermont). [10] Meanwhile, Arnold and his Connecticut militia continued on to Cambridge, where Arnold convinced the Massachusetts Committee of Safety to fund an expedition to take the fort. On May 3, the committee appointed him a colonel in the Massachusetts militia and dispatched him, and several captains under his command, to raise an army in Massachusetts. [11] As his captains recruited troops Arnold rode west. When he reached Williamstown he learned of the activities of Mott and Allen. Turning north, he reached Castleton on May 9, where Allen's forces were already gathering. Arnold attempted to gain control over the expedition by asserting the legitimacy of his commission, but Allen's Green Mountain Boys, by far the largest part of the force, refused to act under the command of anyone other than Allen. [12] In a compromise negotiated privately between Allen and Arnold, the two appeared to jointly lead the expedition. [a]

On May 10, 1775, Fort Ticonderoga was assaulted in a dawn attack and taken without a battle, the colonial forces having surprised the outnumbered British garrison. [13] They also captured nearby Fort Crown Point and Fort George, which were occupied by even smaller garrisons. [14] Following these captures, Allen's men broke into the liquor stored at the fort, and became somewhat unruly. Arnold, who wanted to inventory the fort's military assets for possible transport to Boston, was incensed, but powerless to stop them. [15] With the arrival of men his captains had recruited, and of a schooner they had captured, Arnold then executed a daring raid on Fort Saint-Jean, not far from Montreal. He took more prisoners, and also captured the largest military vessel on Lake Champlain, giving the Americans complete military control of the lake. [16]

After returning to Ticonderoga, Arnold began to exert more authority over the place as Allen's men drifted away. However, a Connecticut force of 1,000 men under Colonel Benjamin Hinman arrived in June with orders placing him in command with Arnold as his subordinate. This act angered Arnold, who felt his efforts on behalf of the revolution were not being recognized he resigned his commission and headed for his home in Connecticut. [17] Arnold's angry response to the loss of command led some members of Congress to dislike him in spite of his military contributions. [18] Congressional opinion of Arnold was also negatively affected by reports circulated by two men that Arnold came to consider enemies. John Brown and James Easton were two of Allen's lieutenants who had traveled to Massachusetts and Philadelphia to report on the action. While their characterizations of Arnold's behavior were accurate, he apparently came to believe that they had probably slandered him, and later interactions with both men were marked by conflict. [19] In an encounter between Arnold and Easton in June, Easton slighted Arnold's authority, to which Arnold responded by challenging the other man to a duel. Easton demurred, and Arnold, in his account of the affair, "took the Liberty of Breaking his head". [20] After Arnold resigned his Massachusetts commission, the state's Committee of Safety appointed Easton to take over the Massachusetts troops at Ticonderoga. [21]

When he reached Albany, Arnold received a letter informing him that his wife had died. [18] He also met with Major General Philip Schuyler, newly in command of the Continental Army's Northern Department, [22] with whom he established a cordial relationship. Arnold returned to New Haven, where he visited his children (now in the care of his sister Hannah) and took care of business dealings. While in New Haven he suffered his first attacks of gout, which plagued him for the rest of his life. [23]

While at Ticonderoga, both Arnold and Allen lobbied Congress with the idea of taking Quebec from the British, as it was lightly defended. [24] General Schuyler was eventually assigned the task of developing a plan to invade Quebec via Lake Champlain in July. The objective was to deprive the British of an important base from which they could attack upper New York. [25] Schuyler intended to lead this force, but due to illness he turned command over to Brigadier General Richard Montgomery early in the expedition, which left in late August. [26]

Arnold, deprived of the opportunity to lead that expedition, went to Cambridge and proposed to George Washington that a second force, in concert with Schuyler's, attack by traveling through the wilderness of what is now Maine to Quebec City. [27] Washington and Schuyler approved the idea, and Washington gave Arnold a colonel's commission in the Continental Army and leadership of the expedition. [28] Arnold used as a guide for the expedition a map and journal he had acquired that were made by John Montresor, a British engineer who mapped the route in 1761. The journal was vague in some details, and, unknown to Arnold, the map contained deliberate omissions to reduce its value to military opponents. [29] [30]

The force of 1,100 recruits embarked from Newburyport, Massachusetts on September 19, 1775, arriving at Gardinerston, Maine, where Arnold had made prior arrangements with Major Reuben Colburn to construct 200 shallow-draft boats known as bateaux, on September 22. [31] [32] These were to be used to transport the troops up the Kennebec and Dead rivers, then down the Chaudière River to Quebec City. The expedition had numerous difficulties that slowed its progress, including several lengthy and difficult portages, bad weather, inaccurate maps, and troops inexperienced in handling the boats. As a result, the expedition took much longer than expected, 500 men either died or turned back, and the remnants were near starvation when they reached the Saint Lawrence River in November. [33]

The British had been alerted to Arnold's approach and had destroyed all of the boats on the river's southern banks. Although two warships, the frigate Lizard (26 guns) and the sloop-of-war Pemburu (16 guns), kept up a constant patrol to prevent a river crossing, Arnold was able to procure sufficient watercraft for his men, and crossed to the Quebec City side on November 11. [34] He then realized his force was not strong enough to capture the city, so he retreated several miles and waited for Montgomery. [35]

In late August, Montgomery sailed north from Fort Ticonderoga with about 1,200 men. [36] After successfully besieging Fort Saint-Jean, he captured Montreal on November 13. The two men joined forces in early December, and with their combined force of about 1,200 soldiers, they attacked Quebec on December 31, 1775. [37] The colonial forces suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of General Guy Carleton, governor of Quebec and commander of the British forces. Montgomery was killed leading an assault along with all but one of his officers his men never got close to the walls. Arnold's force made a descent into the lower town. Early in the battle, Arnold was wounded in the leg, but stayed on the battlefield encouraging his troops on. Daniel Morgan's rifle company, the most successful of the American troops, fought inside the city until Morgan was cornered and forced to surrender. Many others were killed or wounded, and hundreds were taken prisoner. [38]

The remnants of the army, reduced by the battle and by expiring enlistments to some 600 men, now came under Arnold's command. Instead of retreating, Arnold maintained a minimally effective siege around the city. [39] In this time Arnold learned that he had been promoted to brigadier general in January for his success in reaching Quebec City. [40] He also had a run-in with John Brown, who was now a major and had come north with Montgomery. Montgomery had apparently promised Brown a promotion, which he then applied to Arnold to receive. Arnold, apparently still smarting over the perceived slights at Ticonderoga, denied the promotion, which Brown promptly appealed directly to Congress. Arnold's response to this threat to his authority was to accuse Brown, and also Easton, who had been present when Montgomery took Montreal but had returned south, of improperly plundering the bags of British officers. When Brown insisted on a court martial to clear his name, Arnold again refused, attempting to further smear the two men through the use of intermediaries. (Brown never received a formal hearing on Arnold's charges.) [41]

Arnold maintained the siege until the spring of 1776, when reinforcements under Brigadier General David Wooster arrived. Arnold traveled to Montreal to take up military command of that city. [42]

In May 1776, while a delegation of the Continental Congress was visiting Montreal, a large British fleet began arriving in Quebec, precipitating the retreat of the Continental Army from Quebec City. [43] Arnold's administration of Montreal became complicated by a British-Indian force's attack on an American fort at The Cedars, upriver from Montreal, in May that began to unfold while he was attending a war council with the retreating army's command and the Congressional delegation at Sorel. He returned to Montreal to organize a response, and, with the assistance of timely reinforcements, reached an agreement for a prisoner exchange with the British, who were holding the garrison from the fort. [44] In a war council discussing how to respond to the incident, Arnold had a heated exchange with Moses Hazen, the commander of the 2nd Canadian Regiment, that was the beginning of a series of disputes between them that eventually resulted in courts martial of both men. [45]

Arnold then began preparing to evacuate the American garrison from Montreal. Pursuant to instructions from the Congressmen he began seizing supplies from local merchants, issuing receipts for the goods that the merchants could use in compensation claims later. These goods, which were marked to identify the supplying merchant, were shipped to Fort Chambly in early June. [46] Hazen, who owned property in the area and was in command at Chambly, refused to store the goods, believing them to be goods seized improperly from merchants he knew. [47]

Arnold's anger at Hazen's act needed to be held back the British advance up the St. Lawrence almost caught him by surprise. He was alerted that British ships were approaching the city by a messenger he sent toward Sorel for news. [48] Upon departure from the city, he ordered fires to be set in an attempt to burn the city before the British arrived, and then went to Saint-Jean, where he joined the rear of the retreating army. Arnold directed his forces to destroy by burning or sinking any ships the British could use on Lake Champlain, and set fire to the fort and nearby works. [49] Arnold is reported to have waited until the vanguard of the British army came into musket range before shooting his own horse dead and pushing off from Saint-Jean and departing up the Richelieu to Champlain. [50]

Arnold then spent the summer of 1776 coordinating the construction of a flotilla of small warships and gunboats at Skenesborough, to delay the British further by denying them free access to the lake. The British responded by building a much larger lake flotilla at Saint-Jean, which they launched in early October. The British destroyed Arnold's flotilla at the Battle of Valcour Island in mid-October, and advanced as far as Crown Point. However, winter was setting in, so General Carleton called off the advance. [17]

During the fleet's construction, Arnold ordered the arrest and trial of Hazen for dereliction of his duty with respect to the incident at Chambly. [51] Hazen, a politically well-connected figure (his commission to lead the 2nd Canadian came after appearing before Congress following the Battle of Quebec), turned the proceeding on its head, countercharging that Arnold had stolen the goods in question, [52] and that the officer responsible for transporting them, a Major Scott, had damaged them in transit. [53] Major Scott's testimony was questioned and eventually rejected by the court martial, [54] which acquitted Hazen and ordered Arnold's arrest. General Horatio Gates, then in command at Ticonderoga, dissolved the arrest warrant, citing the desperate need for Arnold's services against the expected British attack. [52] Arnold's silence in response to Hazen's accusation probably confirmed and deepened the opinions people already held of him those favorably disposed to him perceived it as a dignified non-response to a ridiculous accusation, while those who disliked him saw it as the reaction of a man whose hand had been caught in the till. Historians continue to debate whether Arnold was actually engaged in anything illegal. [55] In the aftermath of these incidents, Congressman Samuel Chase warned Arnold that "your best friends are not your countrymen". [56]

Much of the army at Ticonderoga was ordered to march south in November, to reinforce Washington's army in the defense of New Jersey. In Albany, Arnold was again made to face formal charges. Brown and Hazen had each drawn up charges relating to earlier actions. Hazen charged defamation of character over the accusations Arnold had earlier levelled against him, and Brown accused him of a variety of minor charges, but also two peculiar ones: first, that Arnold had deliberately spread smallpox throughout the army in Quebec, and second, that Arnold had, during the raid on Saint-Jean, made "a treasonable attempt to make his escape . to the enemy." [57] General Gates refused a hearing of Brown's charges, and a court martial, although it determined that Arnold's accusation against Hazen constituted "an aspersion of Colonel Hazen's character", imposed no punishment. [57] In the winter of 1776–77, Brown published a handbill that claimed of Arnold, "Money is this man's God, and to get enough of it he would sacrifice his country". [58]

Washington assigned Arnold to the army's Eastern Department in December 1776 to assist in the defense of Rhode Island, where the British had occupied Newport. [59] In February 1777, Arnold was passed over for promotion to major general by Congress, prompting him to consider resigning. [60] He was visiting his family in New Haven when word arrived of a British action against an army supply depot in Danbury. Arnold and General Wooster helped to marshal militia response to this action, which culminated in the Battle of Ridgefield, where Wooster was killed and Arnold was again wounded in the leg. Arnold distinguished himself by continuing to regroup the militia companies and harrying the British forces all the way to the coast. He received promotion to major general for this action, [61] although his seniority over the earlier appointments would not be restored until after his valiant leadership in the decisive battles of Saratoga in fall 1777. [62]

While recovering from wounds incurred at Saratoga, Arnold was given military command of Philadelphia following the British withdrawal from that city. [63] There he became embroiled in political and legal disputes that apparently convinced him to change sides in 1779. [64] [65] Negotiating with British Major John André for more than one year, his plot to surrender West Point failed in 1780 with André's capture and eventual hanging. [66] His British military service began with an expedition to raid American supply depots in Virginia in 1781, during which the only major action was the Battle of Blandford. He was then sent on a raid against New London, Connecticut in early September in a fruitless attempt to divert Washington's march to face Cornwallis in Virginia. [67] He sailed for London at the end of 1781, on a ship that also carried Lord Cornwallis, who had been released on parole after his surrender at Yorktown. [68] Despite repeated attempts to gain command positions in the British Army or with the British East India Company, he was given no more military commands. He resumed business activities, engaging in trade while based at first in Saint John, New Brunswick and then London. On June 14, 1801 Benedict Arnold slipped into a coma and died. [69] [70]


Did the Continental Congress Prolong the War

Been doing a lot of research about the Generals during the American Revolutionary War, in particular Benedict Arnold.

After Benedict Arnold was first passed over for a Major General promotion he sent in his resignation to Washington to which Washington would not accept and told Congress that they should stop playing politics as many of their best generals would resign because of it.

Benedict Arnold, Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan were each passed over for men like Charles Lee, Horatio Gates and Benjamin Lincoln.

Arnold, Greene and Morgan all knew how to fight the British by using guerrilla tactics.

Just an observation that I wanted to throw out there. Would the American Revolutionary War have ended quicker and France gotten involved sooner if these three men would have been elevated instead of the others. I don't believe Arnold would have committed Treason if he had been given the rank he deserved. that does not excuse his actions and he should have been hanged.

Buflineks

Been doing a lot of research about the Generals during the American Revolutionary War, in particular Benedict Arnold.

After Benedict Arnold was first passed over for a Major General promotion he sent in his resignation to Washington to which Washington would not accept and told Congress that they should stop playing politics as many of their best generals would resign because of it.

Benedict Arnold, Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan were each passed over for men like Charles Lee, Horatio Gates and Benjamin Lincoln.

Arnold, Greene and Morgan all knew how to fight the British by using guerrilla tactics.

Just an observation that I wanted to throw out there. Would the American Revolutionary War have ended quicker and France gotten involved sooner if these three men would have been elevated instead of the others. I don't believe Arnold would have committed Treason if he had been given the rank he deserved. that does not excuse his actions and he should have been hanged.

Greene was not a Guerilla tactian, he was a "Line General". But he did recognize the benefit of unorthodox tactics and proper use of certian militia. Same goes for Morgan.

France came in after Saratoga, and most historians I think will agree that the success of that campaign wasn't so much due to Gates, as it was to Arnold and some small extent Morgan.

The problem with the Continental Congress was the Articles of Confederation. It showed the deficieny then as well as later and led to the Consitutional Convention.

To be honest, I and others think that C. Lee and Gates for lack of better descriptions were "tools". They wanted overall command and were disgruntled that an "Upstart" Virginian was given command over them.

Yakmatt

Green was a civilian before the war. He won promotion quickly but made major mistakes at Ft Washington. He learned on the job and was considered one of the top US commanders by the end of the war. Arnold was a daring leader but was involved in controversy and on the wrong side of political battles. Morgan was poorly educated and enjoyed drinking and gambling. Morgan had served as a civilian teamster during the French and Indian War. After returning from the advance on Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) by General Braddock's command, he was punished with 499 lashes (a usually fatal sentence) for punching his superior officer. Morgan thus acquired a hatred for the British Army. [ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Morgan]Daniel Morgan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]


Both Lee and Gates had command experience in the as Majors British Army. Lee was responsible for stopping the British invasion of Charleston and was with Washington at Boston. He also served in the polish army. Gates was a major during the 7 years war. So both had a pedigree that would earn them top command spots.

Of course both men caused problems for the American side. Gates was incompetent. And Lee worked to undermine Washington, got captured, and disgraced himself at Monmouth.

MattV

This is the key point. When Congress was picking who to promote they went to the men with the most experience. Lee and Gates had the experience, Greene, Arnold, and Morgan did not. Considering how inexperienced the Continental Army was Congress was definitely going to pick men with experience over men with little or no experience. We have the benefit of hindsight so we know that these were poor choices but at the time you can't blame Congress for thinking Lee and Gates were better choices.

You asked if France would have gotten involved sooner if Greene, Arnold and Morgan were promoted over Gates and Lee, and I think the answer is definitely no. France was waiting for a decisive victory to get involved in the war, and if Congress was promoting men with no experience over men with experience that would have caused some raised eyebrows and more hesitation at the least. Remember even though neither was the commanding general at Saratoga both Arnold and Morgan were there and played significant roles in the victory.

Knarly Dan

Betgo

This is the key point. When Congress was picking who to promote they went to the men with the most experience. Lee and Gates had the experience, Greene, Arnold, and Morgan did not. Considering how inexperienced the Continental Army was Congress was definitely going to pick men with experience over men with little or no experience. We have the benefit of hindsight so we know that these were poor choices but at the time you can't blame Congress for thinking Lee and Gates were better choices.

You asked if France would have gotten involved sooner if Greene, Arnold and Morgan were promoted over Gates and Lee, and I think the answer is definitely no. France was waiting for a decisive victory to get involved in the war, and if Congress was promoting men with no experience over men with experience that would have caused some raised eyebrows and more hesitation at the least. Remember even though neither was the commanding general at Saratoga both Arnold and Morgan were there and played significant roles in the victory.

It wasn't like the Civil War with all the West Point graduates. That is why they brought in so many European officers. Washington had been a militia officer and aide de camp in the French and Indian War, but was not a professional soldier.

Greene was of middle class background and not much military experience. Morgan was from a poor background. Arnold was a businessman before the war and a militia officer.

Mangekyou

Greene was not a good field commander. In the southern theatre he lost every battle. What he do was keep his continental army in existence and in companionship with units of the guerillas. This enabled him to adopt a flexible strategy, which eventually cornered the British in Yorktown. This was also a case early in the war. Howe failed to destroy the field army of Washington, despite having numerous chances to do so. As a result, it was able to drill itself and survive Valley Forge, and pick decisive moments to strike at Trenton and Princeton.

Both Morgan and Arnold were valuable assets. Morgan was a pugnacious leader, and his sharpshooters proved their worth during the battles at Saratoga and later on at Cowpens, where he developed a flexible "spring" like formation to defeat Tarleton who was rather impulsive in his direct charge as was his style Speed and penetration.

Arnold also proved himself at Saratoga, and in Canada. both times his influence was decisive. In Canade he built a matchbox fleet that even though destroyed at Valcour island, was able to delay the southern thrust of Carleton by a year and forced him into winter quarters. He coul'dve destroyed the navy a year earlier than Valcour, but as stated above, Arnolds quick and decisive thinking made him take to winter quarters. He was also the single most decisive figure at Saratoga, where without his defiance at Gates, the Americans surely would have been broken by the tenacity of the British troops.


Both of these two men exhiibted excellent thinking and leadership abilities, probably the best two American generals of the war, yet the had something in common they were both unorthodox and not afraid to disobey command. As such they were bypassed for commands at times, and Arnold later defected.

The History Junkie

Greene was not a good field commander. In the southern theatre he lost every battle. What he do was keep his continental army in existence and in companionship with units of the guerillas. This enabled him to adopt a flexible strategy, which eventually cornered the British in Yorktown. This was also a case early in the war. Howe failed to destroy the field army of Washington, despite having numerous chances to do so. As a result, it was able to drill itself and survive Valley Forge, and pick decisive moments to strike at Trenton and Princeton.

Both Morgan and Arnold were valuable assets. Morgan was a pugnacious leader, and his sharpshooters proved their worth during the battles at Saratoga and later on at Cowpens, where he developed a flexible "spring" like formation to defeat Tarleton who was rather impulsive in his direct charge as was his style Speed and penetration.

Arnold also proved himself at Saratoga, and in Canada. both times his influence was decisive. In Canade he built a matchbox fleet that even though destroyed at Valcour island, was able to delay the southern thrust of Carleton by a year and forced him into winter quarters. He coul'dve destroyed the navy a year earlier than Valcour, but as stated above, Arnolds quick and decisive thinking made him take to winter quarters. He was also the single most decisive figure at Saratoga, where without his defiance at Gates, the Americans surely would have been broken by the tenacity of the British troops.


Both of these two men exhiibted excellent thinking and leadership abilities, probably the best two American generals of the war, yet the had something in common they were both unorthodox and not afraid to disobey command. As such they were bypassed for commands at times, and Arnold later defected.

While I agree about Arnold and Morgan, I have to disagree with Greene. He did something very similar to Morgan at Guilford Courthouse and although he did not technically win it stopped Cornwallis and made him retreat back to Yorktown. It is hard to look over the words of Washington when he said that if he were to die in battle that he wanted Nathanael Greene to take over his command. While I don't believe that Greene was a better field commander than Morgan or Arnold he was certainly better than Gates, Lee and Lincoln. Also Greene was better at logistics than any General in the war which is often overlooked.

When Congress was looking for another commander in the South they chose Gates, although Washington wanted Greene. Throughout history I never understand when bureaucrats decide military decisions like that rather than listen to their commanders in the field, especially the commander-in-chief. If Greene and Morgan would have been put in that position instead of Gates I believe that Camden would have never happened.

Arnold was such a fighter and great battle commander that I don't know what he would have done after Saratoga. The same goes for Morgan. By the time Cowpens happened Morgan's sciatica was so bad he had to resign after.

Gates = incompetent and saved by Arnold and Morgan at Saratoga.
Lincoln = Incompetent
Lee = Average, but was a traiter before Arnold ever was.


Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor

Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor is a 2003 American television film directed by Mikael Salomon and starring Aidan Quinn, Kelsey Grammer, Flora Montgomery and John Light. It portrays the career of Benedict Arnold in the American Revolutionary War and his dramatic switch in 1780 from fighting for American Independence to being a Loyalist trying to preserve British rule in America. Arnold's relationships with his wife Peggy Shippen and the British officer John André are focused on. The friction between Arnold and General Horatio Gates, portrayed near the beginning of the film (for example, in one scene when Arnold derisively refers to him as "Granny Gates"), was historically accurate. The movie points out that, before his treason, Arnold was considered a patriot and a hero. A letter from General Washington is read at the beginning where he enthusiastically recommends Arnold for promotion saying that there is no general in the army more deserving and even comparing him to Hannibal. The movie briefly documents Arnold's final years of exile in England in which he laments his treasonous acts, realizing that he is despised and that people compare him with Judas and Lucifer.

The movie opens with these words:

The American Revolution bitterly divided the people:
A third calling themselves Patriots fought for a free and independent nation.
A third called themselves Loyalists remaining loyal to Great Britain.
A third remained neutral.
Against the world's greatest power, the patriots suffered many defeats.
Thousands gave their lives for an ideal:
The United States of America.

In a letter to the Continental Congress, George Washington recommends Brigadier General Benedict Arnold for promotion to Major General for the numerous acts of heroism he made as an ardent Patriot. Washington first cites Arnold's invasion of Canada through the Maine wilderness, a feat he compares to Hannibal's march over the Alps. Washington notes that if Arnold hadn't been wounded during the Battle of Quebec, Canada would now be the 14th State. He then notes Arnold's victory in the Battle of Valcour Island in which that although Arnold lost all his ships, he succeeded in stopping an invasion from the north by the British. He also reveals that he is now helping General Horatio Gates stave off another invasion from the north.

At Saratoga, Gates has called Arnold off the battlefield. Gates tells him that he has ordered a retreat. Arnold reminds him that they have a joint command of the Northern Army and that he therefore cannot order a retreat without consulting with him first. Gates reveals that thanks to his political connections Congress has elevated him to First in Command of the Northern Army and restates his order. Arnold refuses to comply and instead leads the Northern Army to victory, at the cost of being shot in his leg. Arnold's victory forces British General Burgoyne to surrender to Gates. Gates claims all the credit for the victory while Arnold undergoes treatment for his leg after he refuses to have it amputated. Gates goes on to command the Continental Army's Southern Army while Arnold goes home after the treatment is over.

Months later, Arnold is invited by Washington to join him at Valley Forge were his is made a ranking Major General. Meanwhile, in Philadelphia, the British are about to evacuate the city for New York City. Captain John André promises his girlfriend Peggy Shippen he will return for her. Sometime later, Arnold arrives in the city due to being appointed by Washington as Military Governor with his aide de camp Major David Franks. Joseph Reed, Pennsylvania's Governor, tries to intimidate him but Arnold faces the Pennsylvania Militia down in a way that makes them stand down. Peggy, who was watching, is impressed. Later, Arnold makes a deal with a merchant to supply army wagons that will bring his goods to Philadelphia in return for fifty percent of the profits. He then hosts a party to celebrate the second Independence Day. At the party, he meets Peggy and falls in love with her. Reed, who is attending, again tries to intimidate Arnold but again Arnold makes him back down.

Arnold courts Peggy and eventually proposes marriage to her. Peggy's father Judge Shippen objects to the marriage because of Arnold's self-righteous Puritanism, his lowly circumstances, his reputation as a "thin-skinned hothead", Reed's attacks on his character in newspapers, and his being a cripple because of his injury at Saratoga. Arnold’s honor would not let him marry Peggy unless he agrees to a court-martial in order to clear his name. Arnold goes to Washington to request a court-martial. He then goes back and marries Peggy. That night, Mount Pleasant, Arnold's Pennsylvanian home, is besieged by an angry mob over his marriage. Arnold sends Franks to Washington to send Continental soldiers to protect his house, his sister Hannah Arnold, his sons Benedict Arnold VI, Richard Arnold and Henry Arnold, and Peggy. However, when Franks returns he informs Arnold that Washington will send no troops and instead presents Arnold with a bill from the Continental Congress for the use of the army wagons. Peggy convinces her husband that Congress and Washington do not value him and do not appreciate his sacrifices and to defect to the British army. Peggy sends a letter to André, who has long since become a Major and the Adjunct General in the British Army. Major André informs Sir Henry Clinton, the Commander in Chief of the British Army, that Arnold wants to defect and offer his services to the Crown. Sir Henry tells Andre to send a letter back to demand that the "American Achilles" deliver up West Point to them to test Arnold. Arnold sends back terms to them. He then attends his court marshal. Meanwhile, it's revealed that the reason Washington did not send troops is because the Continental Army is in a state of mutiny. Arnold is reprimanded by Washington for being a war profiteer on Congress's orders. It quickly becomes clear to Arnold that he is now held in contempt when a soldier who once praised him mouths off to him. Washington offers Arnold command of the Left Wing of the Main Continental Army so he can return to active service and regain the esteem of the Continentals. This makes Arnold have second thought about his decision to defect as this will make him second in command of the entire Continental Army. Peggy tells him it is too late as Sir Henry has already agreed to the deal he offered. Arnold goes back to Washington to beg him for command of West Point. Washington grants him his request.

Six months later, Arnold and Peggy are living right beside West Point with their infant son Edward Arnold. Arnold meets with Joshua Smith who informs him that André will meet with him aboard the HMS Vulture. However the ship opens fire on him. Peggy informs him that it was a gunboat that opened fire on him not the Vulture. Arnold informs her Washington and his General Staff are coming. Peggy tells Benedict that if he delivers them up to the British as well he will no doubt be made a Lord and Viceroy of British America. Arnold sends a message to André offering this and demanding that André meet him on land. Sir Henry agrees to this and tells André he will be given a knighthood when he returns. Franks confronts Arnold about his business with Smith and Arnold tells him Smith is part of a plan to end the war.

André arrives and they work out the plan to take West Point and the Continental General Staff. However, cannons open fire on the Vulture and André is forced to return on land. However, he's caught by skinners and turned over to Colonel John Jameson. Jameson sends news of "Anderson's" capture to Arnold and the plans to West Point to Washington. Upon getting the message, Arnold thanks Franks for his devotion and flees to the Vulture which he escapes on. Washington arrives to find the Fort and men unarmed and the sentries missing and demands to know what's going on. The messenger with the plans for West Point arrives and delivers them and a letter to His Excellency General Washington. Washington tells everyone "Arnold has betrayed us! Apparently, he was about to deliver up West Point to the enemy with all of us! If our greatest warrior is a traitor can anyone be trusted?!" Franks, Smith, and Joseph Calhoon are arrested. The men at West are called back to the Fort where they are told to put down the picks and shovels Arnold ordered them to carry around and pick up their muskets. The cannons are soon put back in place. West Point is soon prepared for a British attack. Arnold now a British Brigadier General offers himself up for André. Sir Henry refuses on the ground a deserter is never given up. Arnold replies he does not consider himself a deserter to which Sir Henry tells him "What you think you are and what the world assigns will always be at odds." André is hung.

Eighteen years later, Arnold and Peggy are living in the United Kingdom. Arnold is forced to realize that he is hated as a man whose name will be ranked in granite amongst the betrayers. The epilogue announces that Arnold died three years later and that his only monument at Saratoga does not bear his name but merely reads "In memory of the most brilliant soldier of the Continental Army who was desperately wounded in this spot winning the most decisive battle of the Revolution and for himself the rank of Major General."

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