Cerita itu

Akaun Pertama Pengeboman Hiroshima


Seorang mubaligh Katolik yang pernah tinggal di dekat Hiroshima pada masa A.S. menjatuhkan bom atom di bandar itu pada 6 Ogos 1945, menyampaikan akaun pertama kepada koresponden radio Marine Corps, Sgt. Eddie Pendergast.


Akaun Pertama Pengeboman Hiroshima - SEJARAH

"Hiroshima" tujuh puluh lima tahun selepas pengeboman

Cristóbal S Berry-Cabán
Fort Bragg, NC

Rajah 1. Anak Kecil di Pulau Tinian, Ogos 1945. Dari Arkib Negara.
Gambar 2. Awan cendawan di atas Hiroshima, 6 Ogos 1945. Dari Arkib Negara.
Gambar 3. Kulit orang ini dibakar mengikut corak sesuai dengan bahagian gelap kimono yang dipakai pada saat letupan. Dari Arkib Negara.

"Pada tepat lima belas minit lapan pagi pada 6 Ogos 1945, waktu Jepun, ketika bom atom meletup di atas Hiroshima, Nona Toshiko Sasaki, seorang pegawai di bahagian personel Asia Timur Timah Kerja, baru saja duduk turun di tempatnya di pejabat kilang dan memusingkan badannya untuk berbicara dengan gadis itu di meja sebelah. " 1 Oleh itu bermula John Hersey Hiroshima mengenai kesan bom atom pertama yang dijatuhkan tujuh puluh lima tahun yang lalu.

Pada awal hari itu Enola Gay, pengebom B-29, telah berlepas dari Pulau Tinian menuju ke Jepun sejauh 1,500 batu. Hiroshima, sasaran utama, adalah pusat ketenteraan dan komunikasi yang penting dengan jumlah penduduk sekitar 300,000. Pengebom terbang di ketinggian rendah sebelum naik ke ketinggian 31.000 kaki ketika mendekati sasaran, melepaskan bom uranium seberat 9,700 paun yang dijuluki Little Boy. Empat puluh tiga saat kemudian letupan besar menyinari langit pagi ketika Little Boy meletup sejauh 1.900 kaki di atas bandar.

Dalam beberapa jam selepas pengeboman Hiroshima, stesen radio membaca pernyataan dari Presiden Harry S. Truman yang memberitahu orang ramai bahawa "Sebuah pesawat Amerika telah menjatuhkan satu bom di Hiroshima. . . Ia adalah bom atom. Ini adalah memanfaatkan kekuatan asas alam semesta. " 2

Tiga hari kemudian Kereta sorong melepaskan Fat Man. Bom ini meletup tinggi di lembah perindustrian Nagasaki, memusnahkan Mitsubishi Arms Factory yang telah menghasilkan torpedo yang jatuh di Pearl Harbor. Dianggarkan 39,000 orang terbunuh secara langsung. 3

Penyerahan Jepun menandakan berakhirnya Perang Dunia II. Ketika Amerika meraikan kemenangan itu, bom atom digantung seperti jerebu yang tidak menyenangkan dari dunia lain. Orang Amerika cuba membuat lelucon: "ketika Tuhan menjadikan Atom, dia pasti menciptakan segelintir untuk Hawa." Hanya sedikit orang Amerika yang bersikap berhati-hati kerana kebanyakan orang percaya bahawa tenaga atom akan memasuki era kedamaian.

Sebilangan kecil menyuarakan perbezaan pendapat. John Foster Dulles menyatakan bahawa bom atom dan "kenegaraan Kristiani" tidak sesuai: "Jika kita, sebagai bangsa Kristian yang diakui, merasa bebas untuk menggunakan tenaga atom dengan cara itu, orang-orang di tempat lain akan menerima keputusan itu. Senjata atom akan dipandang sebagai bagian normal dari gudang perang dan panggung akan ditetapkan untuk pemusnahan manusia secara tiba-tiba dan terakhir. " 4 Namun begitu banyak pemimpin menjawab dengan tegas bahawa bangsa yang benar-benar Kristiani mengakhiri perang secepat mungkin.

Ini adalah satu tahun penuh sebelum kebanyakan orang Amerika menyedari kesan kesihatan bom atom yang mematikan. Pada 31 Ogos 1946, The New Yorker menumpukan keseluruhan terbitan majalahnya untuk catatan enam orang yang masih hidup yang ditemu ramah oleh wartawan pemenang Hadiah Pulitzer, Hersey. Temu ramah 5 Hersey, kemudian diterbitkan sebagai Hiroshima, menjadi klasik segera. 1

Hiroshima dengan jelas menerangkan bom selepas kejadian yang mengerikan: orang-orang dengan bola mata yang meleleh menguap, hanya bayang-bayang mereka yang terukir di dinding perihal bagaimana kulit orang akan jatuh ketika seseorang cuba menariknya keluar dari air luka bakar yang luas di mana tidak ada kulit, hanya otot dan tulang.

Hiroshima memberi kesaksian akan kekuatan bom atom yang tidak wajar dan tidak dapat dipercayai. Bom itu berubah menjadi siang, menimbulkan hujan dan angin, dan menghancurkan makhluk dari dalam dan juga dari luar. Hersey memperkenalkan statistik yang menarik, dengan menyebut jumlah orang yang terbunuh atau cedera dan sebab mengapa banyak orang yang mati dapat diselamatkan. Hampir separuh daripada 150 doktor di bandar terbunuh serta-merta dan beberapa dari mereka yang terselamat mendapat akses ke hospital atau peralatan perubatan.

Dengan menggabungkan statistik ini dengan enam akaun langsung, Hersey memperibadikan tragedi itu, dan menambah makna jumlah orang yang mati dan cedera. Hersey jarang mengambil fokus dari enam tokoh utama ini, dan melalui pengalaman mereka, kita dapat memperoleh gambaran yang jelas mengenai kehancuran itu. Watak-wataknya melihat rumah-rumah yang runtuh runtuh dan mendengar tangisan "Tasukete kure!" ("Tolonglah, kalau mau!") Datang dari bawah reruntuhan. Hersey menerangkan segala-galanya dari kesan bom pada cuaca hingga jenis luka bakar yang dialami oleh banyak orang. Sebenarnya, Hersey bersusah payah untuk menunjukkan kepada para pembacanya bagaimana bom atom itu sangat dahsyat.

Sebelum Hiroshima muncul di akhbar kebanyakan orang Amerika pada masa ini tidak menyedari kekuatan bom atom. Kepantasan dan kerahsiaan menjadi kata kunci Projek Manhattan, program yang membangun dan membina bom. Ketika letupan ujian Trinity berlaku di gurun New Mexico, ia diumumkan oleh media tempatan (bekerjasama dengan Pejabat Penapisan A.S.) sebagai "kemalangan yang tidak berbahaya di tempat peluru jarak jauh." 6 Selepas pengeboman, akses ke Hiroshima dan Nagasaki dibatasi oleh pasukan pendudukan Amerika. Pada tahun 1946, pemimpin tentera Amerika masih biasa menggambarkan peristiwa itu sebagai misi pengeboman yang lain. 6

Hersey adalah yang pertama menembusi pernyataan rasmi. Selepas Hiroshima muncul di Penduduk New York, Albert Einstein memesan 1,000 naskhah. Esei Hersey & # 8217 menimbulkan rasa empati Amerika terhadap mangsa. 7

Serangan dahsyat terhadap Hiroshima dan Nagasaki ini tidak hanya mengumpulkan penyerahan Jepun, tetapi juga menanam ketakutan di dunia. Sebilangan orang akan memperdebatkan ini adalah pertama kalinya Amerika Syarikat dipandang sebagai kekuatan yang harus diperhitungkan, sementara yang lain menganggapnya sebagai salah satu tindakan paling mengerikan dan tidak berperikemanusiaan yang dilakukan. Pandangan ini sangat penting bagi persepsi senjata nuklear di Amerika beberapa dekad kemudian. Selama tahun 60-an, di puncak Perang Dingin dan Krisis Peluru berpandu Kuba, Amerika Syarikat berada dalam situasi yang menakutkan mengenai senjata nuklear. Walaupun konflik tidak pernah memuncak, ketakutan menjadi mangsa kejatuhan nuklear meresapi pemikiran banyak orang Amerika. Matlamat untuk menghapuskan senjata semacam itu sangat terpuji. Tetapi dunia telah berubah dengan banyak cara dalam tujuh puluh lima tahun sejak pengeboman itu.

Ahli fizik Harold Agnew, yang bertugas sebagai pemerhati ilmiah dan menyaksikan kehancuran Hiroshima dari pesawat pemerhati, berpendapat bahawa setiap pemimpin dunia harus dipaksa merasakan kepanasan di wajahnya akibat letupan nuklear. 8 Jumlah orang yang benar-benar mengalami perkara itu berkurang setiap tahun. Sekiranya tidak ada pengalaman langsung, setiap pemimpin dan setiap orang yang celik harus membaca Hiroshima, yang dengan fasih menyampaikan apa yang dipertaruhkan.

Pandangan yang dinyatakan di sini adalah pendapat penulis dan tidak semestinya mencerminkan dasar rasmi Jabatan Perubatan Tentera Darat AS, Jabatan Tentera Darat, Agensi Kesihatan Pertahanan, Jabatan Pertahanan atau Kerajaan AS.

Rujukan

  1. Hersey J. Hiroshima. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 1946.
  2. Truman HS. Pernyataan mengenai Bom Atom, 8 Ogos 1945. Kertas Kerja Umum Presiden: Harry S. Truman. Jilid 1 1945.
  3. Southard S. Nagasaki: Kehidupan Selepas Perang Nuklear. Viking 2015.
  4. Rosendorf N. John Foster Dulles & # 8217 Skizofrenia Nuklear. Dalam: Gaddis JL, Gordon PH, May ER, Rosenberg J, eds. Warga Perang Dingin Menghadapi Bom: Diplomasi Nuklear sejak 1945. New York: Oxford University Press 1999: 62-86.
  5. Hersey J. Hiroshima. The New Yorker1946.
  6. Rhodes R. Pembuatan Bom Atom New York: Simon & amp Schuster 1986.
  7. Shorto R. John Hersey, Penulis yang Membiarkan "Hiroshima" Bercakap Sendiri. The New Yorker2016.
  8. Schlosser E. Eric Schlosser: Mengapa Hiroshima kini lebih penting daripada sebelumnya. Telegraf. 2 Ogos 2015.

CRISTÓBAL S BERRY-CABÁN, PhD, lulusan University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, mempunyai pengalaman lebih dari 30 tahun menjalankan penyelidikan dalam bidang kesihatan. Dia adalah ahli epidemiologi di Pusat Perubatan Womack Army dan profesor bersekutu di Universiti Campbell. Dia adalah pengarang hampir 100 artikel penyelidikan termasuk beberapa artikel mengenai sejarah perubatan.


  • Penerbit & rlm: & lrm Kodansha USA Inc edisi pertama (1 Mei 1997)
  • Bahasa & rlm: & lrm Bahasa Inggeris
  • Hardcover & rlm: & lrm 194 halaman
  • ISBN-10 & rlm: & lrm 477002147X
  • ISBN-13 & rlm: & lrm 978-4770021472
  • Berat barang & rlm: & lrm 14.4 auns
  • Dimensi & rlm: & lrm 6 x 1 x 8.75 inci

Ulasan teratas dari Amerika Syarikat

Terdapat masalah menapis ulasan sekarang. Sila cuba sebentar lagi.

Satu-satunya perkara yang mungkin mengubah pemikiran mereka yang menyokong penggunaan bom atom Amerika terhadap Jepun adalah kesaksian mereka yang terselamat dalam serangan itu. Jeneral Eisenhower, Laksamana Leahy dan lain-lain dalam tentera dan pemerintah menyatakan rasa jijiknya terhadap penggunaan senjata nuklear terhadap orang awam, dan Kapten Robert Lewis (juruterbang bersama Enola Gay) kemudian bertemu dengan sekumpulan Gadis Hiroshima di AS untuk menyatakan kekesalannya dan menyumbangkan wang untuk kos perubatan mereka.

"Surat dari Akhir Dunia", bersama dengan "Hiroshima Diary," menunjukkan serangan terhadap Hiroshima dari segi kos dan penderitaan orang awam. Lebih banyak nyawa terkorban dalam pengeboman kebakaran di bandar-bandar Jepun dan pemusnahan Dresden tetapi kesan langsung dan jangka panjang penggunaan senjata nuklear merupakan tindakan yang mengerikan.

Kita sekarang tahu bahawa penggunaan kekerasan terhadap penduduk awam cenderung menguatkan tekad untuk berjuang hingga ke akhir. Namun, ia tetap menjadi taktik oleh beberapa orang dan akibat yang diterima oleh kebanyakan orang. Penggunaan senjata nuklear terhadap Jepun bukanlah faktor penentu dalam mengakhiri perang. Ia sudah berakhir.

Selagi pemerintah dan rakyat memilih untuk menerima pembunuhan orang awam sebagai jaminan akibat konflik, kekejaman akan berterusan. Kepuasan diri yang tidak dapat diperiksa mengenai kemungkaran yang tidak dapat dielakkan dari kematian orang awam dalam perang adalah kejahatan moral itu sendiri. Terutama sejak abad ke-20 yang digembar-gemburkan di zaman peningkatan jumlah korban jiwa dalam semua konflik.

Kapten Paul Tibbets (juruterbang Enola Gay) pergi ke kuburnya tanpa menyesal tentang Hiroshima. Sebagai penghargaan, dia bertemu dengan sekurang-kurangnya satu hibakusha (mangsa yang terselamat dari serangan). Tibbets dengan betul menyatakan bahawa semua perang tidak bermoral dan membawa kepada tindakan tidak bermoral. Sebaiknya kita mencari kaedah lain untuk menyelesaikan perbezaan.

Hiroshima hari ini adalah sebuah kota moden yang berkilauan yang agak membisu walaupun lawatan ke Atomic Bomb Dome. Malah muzium peringatan itu tidak menyampaikan betapa ngerinya 6 Ogos 1945 seperti yang dilakukan oleh para saksi. Saya tidak dapat membayangkan seseorang membaca buku ini dan tidak dipindahkan.


Sumber Utama

"Doktor Jepun mengatakan bahawa mereka yang terbunuh akibat letupan itu sendiri mati serta merta. Tetapi pada masa ini, menurut para doktor ini, mereka yang hanya mengalami luka bakar kecil mendapati selera makan mereka gagal, rambut mereka rontok, gusi berdarah. Mereka mengalami suhu 104, darah muntah, dan mati. Didapati bahawa mereka telah kehilangan 86 persen mayat darah putih mereka. Minggu lalu orang Jepun mengumumkan bahawa jumlah kematian Hiroshima telah meningkat menjadi 125,000. " - Dari artikel "Apa yang Mengakhiri Perang," majalah LIFE, 17/9/1945

Artikel ini yang diterbitkan di majalah LIFE adalah kisah saksi mata pertama pengeboman yang didedahkan oleh masyarakat Amerika. Gambaran grafik hanya dapat menimbulkan ketakutan di kalangan masyarakat Amerika. Akaun ini membuat masyarakat mengetahui sepenuhnya tentang kekuatan dan akibat persenjataan nuklear, dan mereka menjadi takut dengan penggunaan senjata nuklear di masa depan. Akaun ini hanya dapat merangkumi kesan jangka pendek bom atom dan kejatuhan nuklear, sehingga ketakutan segera hilang dan menjadi semangat nasionalisme. Namun, setelah kesan jangka panjang menjatuhkan bom atom ke atas Jepun menjadi jelas, perdebatan etika mengenai bom atom menjadi lazim dalam politik Amerika dan perbincangan orang awam. Orang ramai mula mempersoalkan motif dan sains pemerintah secara keseluruhan. Kontroversi berputar, dan terus berputar, sekitar sama ada meletupkan bom atom atau tidak adalah keperluan untuk mengakhiri perang, atau jika itu hanyalah pertunjukan kekuatan ilmiah untuk membezakan Amerika Syarikat daripada musuh-musuhnya sebagai negara unggul. Pada akhirnya, akaun langsung, seperti ini, menimbulkan rasa takut dan tidak percaya kepada ruang awam. Ketidakpercayaan dan ketakutan ini menjadi landasan untuk pergeseran budaya, terutama dengan pendekatan Perang Dingin dan kemajuan ilmiah mengenai kejatuhan nuklear.

Dokumentari Fallout Informational & # 8211 1955

Dokumentari ini ditayangkan pada tahun 1955, di tengah-tengah Perang Dingin, sebagai video maklumat berjaga-jaga yang memberitahu masyarakat umum tentang bagaimana untuk tetap selamat dan mengelakkan kesan buruk dari kejatuhan nuklear. Seperti yang dijelaskan dalam video, kejatuhan tidak dilokalisasi ke lokasi uji coba di mana senjata nuklear diletupkan, jadi siapa pun dalam radius beberapa ratus batu dari lokasi ujian harus berhati-hati untuk menghindari kejatuhan nuklear. Beberapa langkah keselamatan yang dijelaskan termasuk mendengarkan radio tempatan untuk mendapatkan maklumat terkini mengenai kejatuhan nuklear yang berdekatan, mengelakkan tingkap dan pintu, menggunakan beg pasir untuk mengelakkan kejatuhan memasuki tingkap dan bukaan kecil, dan menyimpan bekalan seperti makanan dan air sekiranya berlaku kejatuhan nuklear menghalang meninggalkan rumah untuk jangka masa yang panjang. Namun, ketika Perang Dingin berlangsung, kekhawatiran mengenai kejatuhan nuklear dan radiasi tidak terbatas hanya pada pengujian senjata nuklear ketika kebimbangan masyarakat tentang perang nuklear juga meningkat. Dokumentari ini adalah usaha untuk menenangkan dan memberi maklumat kepada masyarakat Amerika melalui langkah-langkah keselamatan kecil. Walau bagaimanapun, kejatuhan nuklear tidak dapat dielakkan hanya dengan mengikuti langkah-langkah yang digariskan dalam dokumentari ini, tetapi memberi orang rasa kawalan terhadap situasi yang berbahaya dan menakutkan. Ia juga gagal mengakui bahaya sebenarnya yang boleh menyebabkan kejatuhan nuklear kepada manusia dan alam sekitar. Pada dasarnya, dokumentari ini tidak lebih daripada usaha menggunakan media untuk menenangkan ketakutan masyarakat Amerika ketika Perang Dingin melancarkan dan ancaman perang nuklear sangat terdapat dalam budaya Amerika.

Artikel Akhbar & # 8211 1995

Seperti yang dinyatakan, artikel akhbar ini menyangkut seorang lelaki yang memprotes di Tapak Trinity di New Mexico di mana bom atom pertama yang dibuat diuji. Bahagian penting dari peristiwa ini adalah bahawa lelaki yang memprotes itu berasal dari Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, di mana salah satu kemusnahan loji tenaga nuklear terburuk di Amerika Syarikat pernah berlaku. Lelaki itu sangat marah dengan pengalaman peribadinya dengan kesan berbahaya dari radiasi nuklear, dan kemungkinan besar dia tidak setuju dengan tindakan ketenteraan yang dilakukan di Jepun menggunakan senjata nuklear. Secara budaya, artikel ini menunjukkan betapa berbeza perspektif masyarakat Amerika mengenai kejatuhan nuklear. Segera setelah pengeboman Hiroshima dan Nagasaki, orang Amerika takut akan kekuatan nuklear dan bagaimana ia berpotensi membahayakan mereka, terutama ketika Perang Dingin berlangsung setelah Perang Dunia II. Namun, kesan negatif kejatuhan nuklear telah ditemukan melalui pelbagai kaedah penyelidikan ilmiah dari masa ke masa, dan masyarakat Amerika menjadi kecewa dengan kurangnya kawalan terhadap ujian senjata nuklear, dan kecerobohan dengan pengujian itu. Artikel ini menunjukkan sentimen masyarakat mengenai penggunaan senjata nuklear oleh Amerika Syarikat dari masa lalu dan sekarang, dan perubahan budaya yang berlaku seiring dengan perubahan perspektif ini.

Gen, Perkembangan, dan Kanser & # 8211 Edward B. Lewis, 2004

Edward B. Lewis adalah ahli genetik Amerika yang telah melakukan kajian pemenang Hadiah Nobel di Drosophila, yang mengasaskan bidang genetik perkembangan. Selama tahun 1950-an dan 1960-an, dia melakukan kajian mengenai kesan radiasi nuklear dan kejatuhan nuklear dengan memeriksa catatan perubatan orang-orang yang terselamat di Nagasaki dan Hiroshima, dan mendapati bahawa & # 8220 risiko kesihatan akibat radiasi telah diremehkan. & # 8221 Secara spesifik kajian yang dilakukan secara didorong oleh ujian atom yang dilakukan di Nevada pada tahun 1958, Lewis mendapati bahawa tiroid anak-anak dan bayi rentan terhadap radioiodin yang dilepaskan semasa ujian nuklear ini. Kajian pada akhir 1950-an menunjukkan bahawa susu lembu yang memakan rumput nuklear yang tercemar berhampiran tempat ujian di Nevada mengandungi sejumlah besar radioiodin pekat. Oleh itu, ketika anak kecil atau bayi diberi susu yang tercemar, tiroid individu ini menyerap sinaran beta dari radioiodin. Kajian seterusnya menunjukkan peningkatan yang signifikan dalam barah tiroid di kalangan individu yang masih bayi atau anak kecil semasa ujian bom atom dilakukan pada tahun 1958 di Nevada. Begitu juga, pada tahun 1963 Lewis melakukan kajian ahli radiologi yang mendapati bahawa dos radiasi pengion yang rendah, jenis radiasi yang terdapat pada kejatuhan nuklear, dapat menyebabkan leukemia pada individu yang terdedah. Penerbitan kajian ini memicu keengganan orang ramai terhadap ujian dan pembangunan senjata nuklear di Amerika Syarikat. Masyarakat Amerika merasakan bahawa pemerintah cuai dalam menguji senjata-senjata ini di dalam negeri, di mana kejatuhan dapat dilakukan sejauh ribuan batu melalui aliran jet, dan secara efektif mencemarkan negara. Bahaya kesihatan yang terlibat dalam peledakan nuklear juga mengakibatkan ketakutan masyarakat terhadap perang nuklear selama Perang Dingin, yang mengakibatkan gaya hidup didorong oleh rasa takut dan tidak percaya.


Maklumbalas Pelanggan

Ulasan teratas dari Amerika Syarikat

Terdapat masalah menapis ulasan sekarang. Sila cuba sebentar lagi.

Satu-satunya perkara yang mungkin mengubah pemikiran mereka yang menyokong penggunaan bom atom Amerika terhadap Jepun adalah kesaksian mereka yang terselamat dalam serangan itu. Jeneral Eisenhower, Laksamana Leahy dan yang lain dalam tentera dan pemerintah menyatakan rasa jijiknya terhadap penggunaan senjata nuklear terhadap orang awam, dan Kapten Robert Lewis (juruterbang bersama Enola Gay) kemudian bertemu dengan sekumpulan Gadis Hiroshima di AS untuk menyatakan penyesalannya dan menyumbangkan wang untuk kos perubatan mereka.

"Surat dari Akhir Dunia", bersama dengan "Hiroshima Diary," menunjukkan serangan terhadap Hiroshima dari segi kos dan penderitaan orang awam. Lebih banyak nyawa terkorban dalam pengeboman kebakaran di bandar-bandar Jepun dan pemusnahan Dresden tetapi kesan langsung dan jangka panjang penggunaan senjata nuklear merupakan tindakan yang mengerikan.

Kita sekarang tahu bahawa penggunaan kekerasan terhadap penduduk awam cenderung menguatkan tekad untuk berjuang hingga ke akhir. Namun, ia tetap menjadi taktik oleh beberapa orang dan akibat yang diterima oleh kebanyakan orang. Penggunaan senjata nuklear terhadap Jepun bukanlah faktor penentu dalam mengakhiri perang. Ia sudah berakhir.

Selagi pemerintah dan rakyat memilih untuk menerima pembunuhan orang awam sebagai jaminan akibat konflik, kekejaman akan berterusan. Kepuasan diri yang tidak dapat diperiksa mengenai kemungkaran yang tidak dapat dielakkan dari kematian orang awam dalam perang adalah kejahatan moral itu sendiri. Terutama sejak abad ke-20 yang digembar-gemburkan di zaman peningkatan jumlah korban jiwa dalam semua konflik.

Kapten Paul Tibbets (juruterbang Enola Gay) pergi ke kuburnya tanpa menyesal tentang Hiroshima. Sebagai penghargaan, dia bertemu dengan sekurang-kurangnya satu hibakusha (mangsa yang terselamat dari serangan). Tibbets dengan betul menyatakan bahawa semua perang tidak bermoral dan membawa kepada tindakan tidak bermoral. Sebaiknya kita mencari kaedah lain untuk menyelesaikan perbezaan.

Hiroshima hari ini adalah sebuah kota moden yang berkilauan yang agak membisu walaupun lawatan ke Atomic Bomb Dome. Malah muzium peringatan itu tidak menyampaikan betapa ngerinya 6 Ogos 1945 seperti yang dilakukan oleh para saksi. Saya tidak dapat membayangkan seseorang membaca buku ini dan tidak dipindahkan.


Akaun orang pertama: Saya selamat dari Hiroshima

Pada tahun 1945, Hiromu Morishita adalah seorang pelajar berusia 14 tahun di Sekolah Menengah Pertama Hiroshima. Dengan begitu banyak lelaki muda Jepun berjuang untuk negara mereka, Morishita dan rakan sekelasnya digerakkan sebagai tenaga kerja untuk kilang alat ganti pesawat. Ketika bahan habis, mereka ditugaskan untuk meruntuhkan bangunan untuk membuat zon kawalan kebakaran sekiranya Hiroshima terkena pengebom A.S.

Tokyo sudah dibom, bersama dengan puluhan bandar lain. Makluman serangan udara adalah sebahagian daripada persiapan darurat Hiroshima, yang juga termasuk membina rakit buluh sekiranya sebuah takungan diserang.

Tetapi Hiroshima tidak terkena, walaupun ia adalah kota tentera. Itu membuat Morishita dan rakan sekelasnya penasaran - dan takut. Mereka tidak tahu bahawa Hiroshima masih utuh sehingga A.S. dapat menilai kesan bom atom itu.

Pada 6 Ogos, Morishita adalah antara 70-80 pelajar yang berbaris di dekat Jambatan Tsurumi di daerah Hijiyama di Hiroshima, menunggu arahan mereka untuk hari itu.

Profesor kaligrafi yang sudah berusia 84 tahun itu mengingatkan kembali dengan jelas apa yang diikuti:

Tiba-tiba, cahaya terang menyala. Seketika, saya berjongkok dan menutup muka dengan tangan saya. Kami telah diperintahkan untuk melakukannya untuk melindungi diri kami ketika kami dibom. Jika tidak, kami diberitahu bahawa gendang telinga kami akan pecah dan bola mata akan keluar.

Panas yang luar biasa melanda kami. Seolah-olah kita dilemparkan ke dalam tungku peleburan raksasa. Kemudian saya diletupkan oleh letupan dan dipukul ke tanah.

Saya melompat ke dalam air kerana badan saya panas terik. Tidak lama kemudian, orang mula masuk ke dalam air satu demi satu. Saya memandang ke langit. Ia gelap gulita dan debu memenuhi udara. Matahari berkilauan, tetapi dingin dan gelap seolah-olah hari musim sejuk.

Terdapat kesunyian yang menakutkan. Selepas beberapa ketika, saya merangkak keluar dari air. Rintihan rendah dan lemah bergema di seluruh penjuru.

Saya tidak tahu di mana rakan sekelas saya berada. Kemudian, saya melihat salah seorang daripada mereka datang kepada saya. Dia bertanya bagaimana rupa dia. Saya memberitahunya 'Topi dan pakaian anda dibakar dan kulit di wajah anda tergantung seperti kain.' Dia memberitahu saya bahawa saya kelihatan sama.

Berhampiran rel jambatan, seekor kuda yang terbakar teruk sedang berjuang untuk berdiri.

Saya mengikuti orang ramai dan berjalan menuju ke tempat kosong. Di sana terdapat lautan api. Saya menyusuri jalan ke puncak bukit Hijiyama, dari mana saya dapat melihat bandar. Api terlihat di sana sini seolah-olah timbunan habuk papan terbakar. Sirene api menyala.

Saya tidak merasakan apa-apa kerana saya tidak dapat mengetahui apa yang sebenarnya berlaku.


Akaun Saksi Mata Hiroshima

Hingga 6 Ogos, bom sesekali, yang tidak menyebabkan kerosakan besar, telah jatuh di Hiroshima. Banyak bulatan bandar, satu demi satu, musnah, tetapi Hiroshima sendiri tetap dilindungi. Terdapat hampir setiap hari pesawat pemerhatian di bandar tetapi tidak ada yang menjatuhkan bom. Warga tertanya-tanya mengapa mereka bersendirian sejak sekian lama tidak terganggu. Terdapat khabar angin yang luar biasa bahawa musuh mempunyai sesuatu yang istimewa di kota ini, tetapi tidak ada yang bermimpi bahawa akhirnya akan datang dengan cara seperti pagi 6 Ogos.

6 Ogos bermula pada pagi musim panas yang cerah dan terang. Kira-kira pukul tujuh, ada penggera serangan udara yang kami dengar hampir setiap hari dan beberapa pesawat muncul di seluruh bandar. Tidak ada yang memperhatikan dan kira-kira pukul lapan, kedengaran semuanya jelas. Saya duduk di bilik saya di Novitiate of the Society of Jesus di Nagatsuke selama setengah tahun yang lalu, bahagian falsafah dan teologi Misi kami telah dipindahkan ke tempat ini dari Tokyo. Novitiate terletak kira-kira dua kilometer dari Hiroshima, di tengah-tengah sisi lembah yang luas yang membentang dari kota di permukaan laut hingga ke pedalaman pergunungan ini, dan melewati sungai. Dari tingkap saya, saya mempunyai pemandangan indah di lembah ke pinggir bandar.

Tiba-tiba - waktunya sekitar 8: 14 - seluruh lembah dipenuhi oleh cahaya garish yang menyerupai cahaya magnesium yang digunakan dalam fotografi, dan saya menyedari gelombang panas. Saya melompat ke tingkap untuk mengetahui punca fenomena yang luar biasa ini, tetapi saya tidak melihat apa-apa selain cahaya kuning yang cemerlang itu. Semasa saya membuat pintu, tidak terpikir oleh saya bahawa cahaya mungkin ada hubungannya dengan pesawat musuh. Dalam perjalanan dari tingkap, saya mendengar letupan yang agak kuat yang sepertinya datang dari kejauhan dan, pada masa yang sama, tingkap itu pecah dengan bunyi kuat. Terdapat selang mungkin sepuluh saat sejak kilatan cahaya. Saya disembur oleh serpihan kaca. Seluruh bingkai tingkap telah dipaksa masuk ke dalam bilik. Saya menyedari sekarang bahawa bom telah meletup dan saya mendapat kesan bahawa ia meletup tepat di rumah kami atau di kawasan berhampiran.

Saya berdarah akibat luka di bahagian tangan dan kepala. Saya cuba keluar dari pintu. Ia dipaksa keluar oleh tekanan udara dan menjadi macet. Saya memaksa bukaan di pintu dengan pukulan berulang dengan tangan dan kaki saya dan datang ke lorong yang luas dari mana membuka pelbagai bilik. Semuanya dalam keadaan kebingungan. Semua tingkap rosak dan semua pintu dipaksa masuk. Rak buku di lorong runtuh. Saya tidak menyedari letupan kedua dan selebaran nampaknya telah berlaku. Sebilangan besar rakan saya cedera akibat pecahan kaca. Sebilangan kecil mengalami pendarahan tetapi tidak ada yang cedera parah. Kita semua bernasib baik kerana sekarang jelas bahawa dinding bilik saya di seberang tingkap telah dirotan oleh serpihan kaca yang panjang.

Kami terus ke depan rumah untuk melihat di mana bom itu telah jatuh. Namun, tidak ada bukti mengenai kawah bom tetapi bahagian tenggara rumah itu mengalami kerosakan teruk. Tidak ada pintu atau tingkap yang tersisa. Tiupan udara telah menembusi seluruh rumah dari arah tenggara, tetapi rumah itu masih berdiri. Ia dibangun dalam gaya Jepang dengan kerangka kayu, tetapi telah diperkuat dengan kerja keras Brother Gropper kami seperti yang sering dilakukan di rumah-rumah Jepun. Hanya di depan kapel yang bersebelahan dengan rumah, tiga penyokong telah memberi jalan (ia dibuat dengan cara kuil Jepun, sepenuhnya dari kayu.)

Turun di lembah, mungkin satu kilometer ke arah kota dari kami, beberapa rumah petani terbakar dan hutan di seberang lembah terbakar. Sebilangan daripada kita pergi membantu mengawal nyalaan api. Sementara kami berusaha mengatur keadaan, ribut muncul dan hujan mulai turun. Di seluruh bandar, awan asap naik dan saya mendengar beberapa letupan kecil. Saya sampai pada kesimpulan bahawa bom pembakar dengan tindakan letupan yang sangat kuat telah jatuh di lembah. Sebilangan daripada kita melihat tiga pesawat berada di ketinggian yang besar di atas bandar pada masa letupan. Saya sendiri tidak melihat pesawat.

Mungkin setengah jam selepas letupan, perarakan orang mula menyusuri lembah dari kota. Orang ramai menebal secara berterusan. Beberapa orang datang ke rumah kami. Kami memberi mereka pertolongan cemas dan membawanya ke kapel, yang sementara itu kami telah membersihkan dan membersihkan reruntuhan, dan meletakkannya di atas tikar jerami yang merupakan lantai rumah-rumah Jepun. Beberapa memaparkan luka dahsyat di bahagian belakang dan belakang. Sebilangan kecil lemak yang kita miliki selama perang ini segera habis digunakan untuk merawat luka bakar. Bapa Rektor yang, sebelum mengambil perintah suci, telah belajar perubatan, melayani orang-orang yang cedera, tetapi pembalut dan ubat-ubatan kita segera hilang. Kita mesti puas membersihkan luka.

Semakin banyak yang cedera datang kepada kami. Yang paling cedera menyeret yang lebih parah. Terdapat tentera yang cedera, dan ibu membawa anak-anak yang terbakar di lengan mereka. Dari rumah petani di lembah itu muncul kata: & quotRumah kami penuh dengan luka dan mati. Bolehkah anda membantu, sekurang-kurangnya dengan mengambil kes terburuk? & Quot; Yang cedera berasal dari bahagian di pinggir bandar. Mereka melihat cahaya terang, rumah mereka runtuh dan mengebumikan tahanan di bilik mereka. Mereka yang berada di tempat terbuka mengalami luka bakar seketika, terutama pada bahagian badan yang berpakaian ringan atau tidak berpakaian. Banyak kebakaran yang marak membakar seluruh daerah. Kami kini menyimpulkan bahawa pusat letupan berada di pinggir bandar berhampiran Stesen Jokogawa, tiga kilometer dari kami. Kami prihatin dengan Pastor Kopp yang pada pagi yang sama, pergi mengadakan Misa di Sisters of the Poor, yang mempunyai rumah untuk anak-anak di pinggir kota. Dia belum kembali.

Menjelang tengah hari, kapel dan perpustakaan besar kami dipenuhi dengan cedera parah. Perarakan pelarian dari bandar ini diteruskan. Akhirnya, kira-kira pukul satu, Bapa Kopp kembali, bersama-sama dengan Saudari. Rumah mereka dan seluruh daerah tempat mereka tinggal terbakar habis. Father Kopp berdarah di kepala dan leher, dan dia mengalami luka bakar besar di telapak tangan kanan. Dia berdiri di hadapan biarawati siap pulang. Tiba-tiba, dia menyedari cahaya, merasakan gelombang panas dan lepuh besar terbentuk di tangannya. Tingkapnya terkoyak akibat letupan. Dia menyangka bahawa bom itu jatuh di sekitarnya. Biara itu, juga struktur kayu yang dibuat oleh Brother Gropper kami, masih ada tetapi segera diperhatikan bahawa rumah itu sama baiknya hilang kerana api, yang telah mulai menyala di banyak tempat di kawasan sekitar, menyapu lebih dekat dan dekat, dan air tidak ada. Masih ada masa untuk menyelamatkan barang-barang tertentu dari rumah dan menguburkannya di tempat terbuka. Kemudian rumah itu disapu api, dan mereka bertempur kembali ke kami di sepanjang tepi sungai dan melalui jalan-jalan yang terbakar.

Segera muncul berita bahawa seluruh kota telah musnah akibat letupan dan bahawa ia terbakar. Apa yang menjadi Bapa Superior dan tiga Bapa lain yang berada di pusat bandar di Pusat Misi dan Rumah Paroki? Kami hingga saat ini tidak memikirkannya kerana kami tidak percaya bahawa kesan bom itu merangkumi seluruh kota. Juga, kami tidak mahu pergi ke bandar kecuali di bawah tekanan yang sangat diperlukan, kerana kami berpendapat bahawa penduduknya sangat terganggu dan mungkin akan membalas dendam terhadap mana-mana orang asing yang mungkin mereka anggap sebagai penyengat musibah mereka, atau bahkan mata-mata.

Father Stolte dan Father Erlinghagen turun ke jalan yang masih penuh dengan pelarian dan membawa cedera parah yang tenggelam di tepi jalan, ke stesen bantuan sementara di sekolah kampung. Di sana iodin digunakan pada luka tetapi dibiarkan tidak bersih. Salap dan agen terapi lain tidak ada. Mereka yang dibawa dimasukkan ke lantai dan tidak ada yang dapat memberikan perawatan lebih lanjut. Apa yang dapat dilakukan seseorang ketika semua cara kurang? Dalam keadaan seperti itu, hampir tidak berguna untuk membawa mereka masuk. Di antara orang yang lewat, terdapat banyak yang tidak mengalami kecederaan. Dengan cara yang tanpa tujuan, tidak sensitif, bingung dengan bencana yang besar, kebanyakan mereka terburu-buru dan tidak ada yang memikirkan pemikiran untuk mengatur bantuan atas inisiatifnya sendiri. Mereka hanya mementingkan kesejahteraan keluarga mereka sendiri. It became clear to us during these days that the Japanese displayed little initiative, preparedness, and organizational skill in preparation for catastrophes. They failed to carry out any rescue work when something could have been saved by a cooperative effort, and fatalistically let the catastrophe take its course. When we urged them to take part in the rescue work, they did everything willingly, but on their own initiative they did very little.

At about four o'clock in the afternoon, a theology student and two kindergarten children, who lived at the Parish House and adjoining buildings which had burned down, came in and said that Father Superior LaSalle and Father Schiffer had been seriously injured and that they had taken refuge in Asano Park on the river bank. It is obvious that we must bring them in since they are too weak to come here on foot.

Hurriedly, we get together two stretchers and seven of us rush toward the city. Father Rektor comes along with food and medicine. The closer we get to the city, the greater is the evidence of destruction and the more difficult it is to make our way. The houses at the edge of the city are all severely damaged. Many have collapsed or burned down. Further in, almost all of the dwellings have been damaged by fire. Where the city stood, there is a gigantic burned-out scar. We make our way along the street on the river bank among the burning and smoking ruins. Twice we are forced into the river itself by the heat and smoke at the level of the street.

Frightfully burned people beckon to us. Along the way, there are many dead and dying. On the Misasi Bridge, which leads into the inner city we are met by a long procession of soldiers who have suffered burns. They drag themselves along with the help of staves or are carried by their less severely injured comrades. an endless procession of the unfortunate.

Abandoned on the bridge, there stand with sunken heads a number of horses with large burns on their flanks. On the far side, the cement structure of the local hospital is the only building that remains standing. Its interior, however, has been burned out. It acts as a landmark to guide us on our way.

Finally we reach the entrance of the park. A large proportion of the populace has taken refuge there, but even the trees of the park are on fire in several places. Paths and bridges are blocked by the trunks of fallen trees and are almost impassable. We are told that a high wind, which may well have resulted from the heat of the burning city, has uprooted the large trees. It is now quite dark. Only the fires, which are still raging in some places at a distance, give out a little light.

At the far corner of the park, on the river bank itself, we at last come upon our colleagues. Father Schiffer is on the ground pale as a ghost. He has a deep incised wound behind the ear and has lost so much blood that we are concerned about his chances for survival. The Father Superior has suffered a deep wound of the lower leg. Father Cieslik and Father Kleinsorge have minor injuries but are completely exhausted.

While they are eating the food that we have brought along, they tell us of their experiences. They were in their rooms at the Parish House--it was a quarter after eight, exactly the time when we had heard the explosion in Nagatsuke--when came the intense light and immediately thereafter the sound of breaking windows, walls and furniture. They were showered with glass splinters and fragments of wreckage. Father Schiffer was buried beneath a portion of a wall and suffered a severe head injury. The Father Superior received most of the splinters in his back and lower extremity from which he bled copiously. Everything was thrown about in the rooms themselves, but the wooden framework of the house remained intact. The solidity of the structure which was the work of Brother Gropper again shone forth.

They had the same impression that we had in Nagatsuke: that the bomb had burst in their immediate vicinity. The Church, school, and all buildings in the immediate vicinity collapsed at once. Beneath the ruins of the school, the children cried for help. They were freed with great effort. Several others were also rescued from the ruins of nearby dwellings. Even the Father Superior and Father Schiffer despite their wounds, rendered aid to others and lost a great deal of blood in the process.

In the meantime, fires which had begun some distance away are raging even closer, so that it becomes obvious that everything would soon burn down. Several objects are rescued from the Parish House and were buried in a clearing in front of the Church, but certain valuables and necessities which had been kept ready in case of fire could not be found on account of the confusion which had been wrought. It is high time to flee, since the oncoming flames leave almost no way open. Fukai, the secretary of the Mission, is completely out of his mind. He does not want to leave the house and explains that he does not want to survive the destruction of his fatherland. He is completely uninjured. Father Kleinsorge drags him out of the house on his back and he is forcefully carried away.

Beneath the wreckage of the houses along the way, many have been trapped and they scream to be rescued from the oncoming flames. They must be left to their fate. The way to the place in the city to which one desires to flee is no longer open and one must make for Asano Park. Fukai does not want to go further and remains behind. He has not been heard from since. In the park, we take refuge on the bank of the river. A very violent whirlwind now begins to uproot large trees, and lifts them high into the air. As it reaches the water, a waterspout forms which is approximately 100 meters high. The violence of the storm luckily passes us by. Some distance away, however, where numerous refugees have taken shelter, many are blown into the river. Almost all who are in the vicinity have been injured and have lost relatives who have been pinned under the wreckage or who have been lost sight of during the flight. There is no help for the wounded and some die. No one pays any attention to a dead man lying nearby.

The transportation of our own wounded is difficult. It is not possible to dress their wounds properly in the darkness, and they bleed again upon slight motion. As we carry them on the shaky litters in the dark over fallen trees of the park, they suffer unbearable pain as the result of the movement, and lose dangerously large quantities of blood. Our rescuing angel in this difficult situation is a Japanese Protestant pastor. He has brought up a boat and offers to take our wounded up stream to a place where progress is easier. First, we lower the litter containing Father Schiffer into the boat and two of us accompany him. We plan to bring the boat back for the Father Superior. The boat returns about one-half hour later and the pastor requests that several of us help in the rescue of two children whom he had seen in the river. We rescue them. They have severe burns. Soon they suffer chills and die in the park.

The Father Superior is conveyed in the boat in the same manner as Father Schiffer. The theology student and myself accompany him. Father Cieslik considers himself strong enough to make his way on foot to Nagatsuke with the rest of us, but Father Kleinsorge cannot walk so far and we leave him behind and promise to come for him and the housekeeper tomorrow. From the other side of the stream comes the whinny of horses who are threatened by the fire. We land on a sand spit which juts out from the shore. It is full of wounded who have taken refuge there. They scream for aid for they are afraid of drowning as the river may rise with the sea, and cover the sand spit. They themselves are too weak to move. However, we must press on and finally we reach the spot where the group containing Father Schiffer is waiting.

Here a rescue party had brought a large case of fresh rice cakes but there is no one to distribute them to the numerous wounded that lie all about. We distribute them to those that are nearby and also help ourselves. The wounded call for water and we come to the aid of a few. Cries for help are heard from a distance, but we cannot approach the ruins from which they come. A group of soldiers comes along the road and their officer notices that we speak a strange language. He at once draws his sword, screamingly demands who we are and threatens to cut us down. Father Laures, Jr., seizes his arm and explains that we are German. We finally quiet him down. He thought that we might well be Americans who had parachuted down. Rumors of parachutists were being bandied about the city. The Father Superior who was clothed only in a shirt and trousers, complains of feeling freezing cold, despite the warm summer night and the heat of the burning city. The one man among us who possesses a coat gives it to him and, in addition, I give him my own shirt. To me, it seems more comfortable to be without a shirt in the heat.

In the meantime, it has become midnight. Since there are not enough of us to man both litters with four strong bearers, we determine to remove Father Schiffer first to the outskirts of the city. From there, another group of bearers is to take over to Nagatsuke the others are to turn back in order to rescue the Father Superior. I am one of the bearers. The theology student goes in front to warn us of the numerous wires, beams and fragments of ruins which block the way and which are impossible to see in the dark. Despite all precautions, our progress is stumbling and our feet get tangled in the wire. Father Kruer falls and carries the litter with him. Father Schiffer becomes half unconscious from the fall and vomits. We pass an injured man who sits all alone among the hot ruins and whom I had seen previously on the way down.

On the Misasa Bridge, we meet Father Tappe and Father Luhmer, who have come to meet us from Nagatsuke. They had dug a family out of the ruins of their collapsed house some fifty meters off the road. The father of the family was already dead. They had dragged out two girls and placed them by the side of the road. Their mother was still trapped under some beams. They had planned to complete the rescue and then to press on to meet us. At the outskirts of the city, we put down the litter and leave two men to wait until those who are to come from Nagatsuke appear. The rest of us turn back to fetch the Father Superior.

Most of the ruins have now burned down. The darkness kindly hides the many forms that lie on the ground. Only occasionally in our quick progress do we hear calls for help. One of us remarks that the remarkable burned smell reminds him of incinerated corpses. The upright, squatting form which we had passed by previously is still there.

Transportation on the litter, which has been constructed out of boards, must be very painful to the Father Superior, whose entire back is full of fragments of glass. In a narrow passage at the edge of town, a car forces us to the edge of the road. The litter bearers on the left side fall into a two meter deep ditch which they could not see in the darkness. Father Superior hides his pain with a dry joke, but the litter which is now no longer in one piece cannot be carried further. We decide to wait until Kinjo can bring a hand cart from Nagatsuke. He soon comes back with one that he has requisitioned from a collapsed house. We place Father Superior on the cart and wheel him the rest of the way, avoiding as much as possible the deeper pits in the road.

About half past four in the morning, we finally arrive at the Novitiate. Our rescue expedition had taken almost twelve hours. Normally, one could go back and forth to the city in two hours. Our two wounded were now, for the first time, properly dressed. I get two hours sleep on the floor some one else has taken my own bed. Then I read a Mass in gratiarum actionem, it is the 7th of August, the anniversary of the foundation of our society. Then we bestir ourselves to bring Father Kleinsorge and other acquaintances out of the city.

We take off again with the hand cart. The bright day now reveals the frightful picture which last night's darkness had partly concealed. Where the city stood everything, as far as the eye could reach, is a waste of ashes and ruin. Only several skeletons of buildings completely burned out in the interior remain. The banks of the river are covered with dead and wounded, and the rising waters have here and there covered some of the corpses. On the broad street in the Hakushima district, naked burned cadavers are particularly numerous. Among them are the wounded who are still alive. A few have crawled under the burnt-out autos and trams. Frightfully injured forms beckon to us and then collapse. An old woman and a girl whom she is pulling along with her fall down at our feet. We place them on our cart and wheel them to the hospital at whose entrance a dressing station has been set up. Here the wounded lie on the hard floor, row on row. Only the largest wounds are dressed. We convey another soldier and an old woman to the place but we cannot move everybody who lies exposed in the sun. It would be endless and it is questionable whether those whom we can drag to the dressing station can come out alive, because even here nothing really effective can be done. Later, we ascertain that the wounded lay for days in the burnt-out hallways of the hospital and there they died.

We must proceed to our goal in the park and are forced to leave the wounded to their fate. We make our way to the place where our church stood to dig up those few belongings that we had buried yesterday. We find them intact. Everything else has been completely burned. In the ruins, we find a few molten remnants of holy vessels. At the park, we load the housekeeper and a mother with her two children on the cart. Father Kleinsorge feels strong enough, with the aid of Brother Nobuhara, to make his way home on foot. The way back takes us once again past the dead and wounded in Hakushima. Again no rescue parties are in evidence. At the Misasa Bridge, there still lies the family which the Fathers Tappe and Luhmer had yesterday rescued from the ruins. A piece of tin had been placed over them to shield them from the sun. We cannot take them along for our cart is full. We give them and those nearby water to drink and decide to rescue them later. At three o'clock in the afternoon, we are back in Nagatsuka.

After we have had a few swallows and a little food, Fathers Stolte, Luhmer, Erlinghagen and myself, take off once again to bring in the family. Father Kleinsorge requests that we also rescue two children who had lost their mother and who had lain near him in the park. On the way, we were greeted by strangers who had noted that we were on a mission of mercy and who praised our efforts. We now met groups of individuals who were carrying the wounded about on litters. As we arrived at the Misasa Bridge, the family that had been there was gone. They might well have been borne away in the meantime. There was a group of soldiers at work taking away those that had been sacrificed yesterday.

More than thirty hours had gone by until the first official rescue party had appeared on the scene. We find both children and take them out of the park: a six-year old boy who was uninjured, and a twelve-year old girl who had been burned about the head, hands and legs, and who had lain for thirty hours without care in the park. The left side of her face and the left eye were completely covered with blood and pus, so that we thought that she had lost the eye. When the wound was later washed, we noted that the eye was intact and that the lids had just become stuck together. On the way home, we took another group of three refugees with us. They first wanted to know, however, of what nationality we were. They, too, feared that we might be Americans who had parachuted in. When we arrived in Nagatsuka, it had just become dark.

We took under our care fifty refugees who had lost everything. The majority of them were wounded and not a few had dangerous burns. Father Rektor treated the wounds as well as he could with the few medicaments that we could, with effort, gather up. He had to confine himself in general to cleansing the wounds of purulent material. Even those with the smaller burns are very weak and all suffered from diarrhea. In the farm houses in the vicinity, almost everywhere, there are also wounded. Father Rektor made daily rounds and acted in the capacity of a painstaking physician and was a great Samaritan. Our work was, in the eyes of the people, a greater boost for Christianity than all our work during the preceding long years.

Three of the severely burned in our house died within the next few days. Suddenly the pulse and respirations ceased. It is certainly a sign of our good care that so few died. In the official aid stations and hospitals, a good third or half of those that had been brought in died. They lay about there almost without care, and a very high percentage succumbed. Everything was lacking: doctors, assistants, dressings, drugs, etc. In an aid station at a school at a nearby village, a group of soldiers for several days did nothing except to bring in and cremate the dead behind the school.

During the next few days, funeral processions passed our house from morning to night, bringing the deceased to a small valley nearby. There, in six places, the dead were burned. People brought their own wood and themselves did the cremation. Father Luhmer and Father Laures found a dead man in a nearby house who had already become bloated and who emitted a frightful odor. They brought him to this valley and incinerated him themselves. Even late at night, the little valley was lit up by the funeral pyres.

We made systematic efforts to trace our acquaintances and the families of the refugees whom we had sheltered. Frequently, after the passage of several weeks, some one was found in a distant village or hospital but of many there was no news, and these were apparently dead. We were lucky to discover the mother of the two children whom we had found in the park and who had been given up for dead. After three weeks, she saw her children once again. In the great joy of the reunion were mingled the tears for those whom we shall not see again.

The magnitude of the disaster that befell Hiroshima on August 6th was only slowly pieced together in my mind. I lived through the catastrophe and saw it only in flashes, which only gradually were merged to give me a total picture. What actually happened simultaneously in the city as a whole is as follows: As a result of the explosion of the bomb at 8:15, almost the entire city was destroyed at a single blow. Only small outlying districts in the southern and eastern parts of the town escaped complete destruction. The bomb exploded over the center of the city. As a result of the blast, the small Japanese houses in a diameter of five kilometers, which compressed 99% of the city, collapsed or were blown up. Those who were in the houses were buried in the ruins. Those who were in the open sustained burns resulting from contact with the substance or rays emitted by the bomb. Where the substance struck in quantity, fires sprang up. These spread rapidly.

The heat which rose from the center created a whirlwind which was effective in spreading fire throughout the whole city. Those who had been caught beneath the ruins and who could not be freed rapidly, and those who had been caught by the flames, became casualties. As much as six kilometers from the center of the explosion, all houses were damaged and many collapsed and caught fire. Even fifteen kilometers away, windows were broken. It was rumored that the enemy fliers had spread an explosive and incendiary material over the city and then had created the explosion and ignition. A few maintained that they saw the planes drop a parachute which had carried something that exploded at a height of 1,000 meters. The newspapers called the bomb an "atomic bomb" and noted that the force of the blast had resulted from the explosion of uranium atoms, and that gamma rays had been sent out as a result of this, but no one knew anything for certain concerning the nature of the bomb.

How many people were a sacrifice to this bomb? Those who had lived through the catastrophe placed the number of dead at at least 100,000. Hiroshima had a population of 400,000. Official statistics place the number who had died at 70,000 up to September 1st, not counting the missing . and 130,000 wounded, among them 43,500 severely wounded. Estimates made by ourselves on the basis of groups known to us show that the number of 100,000 dead is not too high. Near us there are two barracks, in each of which forty Korean workers lived. On the day of the explosion, they were laboring on the streets of Hiroshima. Four returned alive to one barracks and sixteen to the other. 600 students of the Protestant girls' school worked in a factory, from which only thirty to forty returned. Most of the peasant families in the neighborhood lost one or more of their members who had worked at factories in the city. Our next door neighbor, Tamura, lost two children and himself suffered a large wound since, as it happened, he had been in the city on that day. The family of our reader suffered two dead, father and son thus a family of five members suffered at least two losses, counting only the dead and severely wounded. There died the Mayor, the President of the central Japan district, the Commander of the city, a Korean prince who had been stationed in Hiroshima in the capacity of an officer, and many other high ranking officers. Of the professors of the University, thirty-two were killed or severely injured. Especially hard hit were the soldiers. The Pioneer Regiment was almost entirely wiped out. The barracks were near the center of the explosion.

Thousands of wounded who died later could doubtless have been rescued had they received proper treatment and care, but rescue work in a catastrophe of this magnitude had not been envisioned since the whole city had been knocked out at a blow, everything which had been prepared for emergency work was lost, and no preparation had been made for rescue work in the outlying districts. Many of the wounded also died because they had been weakened by under-nourishment and consequently lacked in strength to recover. Those who had their normal strength and who received good care slowly healed the burns which had been occasioned by the bomb. There were also cases, however, whose prognosis seemed good who died suddenly. There were also some who had only small external wounds who died within a week or later, after an inflammation of the pharynx and oral cavity had taken place. We thought at first that this was the result of inhalation of the substance of the bomb. Later, a commission established the thesis that gamma rays had been given out at the time of the explosion, following which the internal organs had been injured in a manner resembling that consequent upon Roentgen irradiation. This produces a diminution in the numbers of the white corpuscles.

Only several cases are known to me personally where individuals who did not have external burns later died. Father Kleinsorge and Father Cieslik, who were near the center of the explosion, but who did not suffer burns became quite weak some fourteen days after the explosion. Up to this time small incised wounds had healed normally, but thereafter the wounds which were still unhealed became worse and are to date (in September) still incompletely healed. The attending physician diagnosed it as leucopania. There thus seems to be some truth in the statement that the radiation had some effect on the blood. I am of the opinion, however, that their generally undernourished and weakened condition was partly responsible for these findings. It was noised about that the ruins of the city emitted deadly rays and that workers who went there to aid in the clearing died, and that the central district would be uninhabitable for some time to come. I have my doubts as to whether such talk is true and myself and others who worked in the ruined area for some hours shortly after the explosion suffered no such ill effects.

None of us in those days heard a single outburst against the Americans on the part of the Japanese, nor was there any evidence of a vengeful spirit. The Japanese suffered this terrible blow as part of the fortunes of war . something to be borne without complaint. During this, war, I have noted relatively little hatred toward the allies on the part of the people themselves, although the press has taken occasion to stir up such feelings. After the victories at the beginning of the war, the enemy was rather looked down upon, but when allied offensive gathered momentum and especially after the advent of the majestic B-29's, the technical skill of America became an object of wonder and admiration.

The following anecdote indicates the spirit of the Japanese: A few days after the atomic bombing, the secretary of the University came to us asserting that the Japanese were ready to destroy San Francisco by means of an equally effective bomb. It is dubious that he himself believed what he told us. He merely wanted to impress upon us foreigners that the Japanese were capable of similar discoveries. In his nationalistic pride, he talked himself into believing this. The Japanese also intimated that the principle of the new bomb was a Japanese discovery. It was only lack of raw materials, they said, which prevented its construction. In the meantime, the Germans were said to have carried the discovery to a further stage and were about to initiate such bombing. The Americans were reputed to have learned the secret from the Germans, and they had then brought the bomb to a stage of industrial completion.

We have discussed among ourselves the ethics of the use of the bomb. Some consider it in the same category as poison gas and were against its use on a civil population. Others were of the view that in total war, as carried on in Japan, there was no difference between civilians and soldiers, and that the bomb itself was an effective force tending to end the bloodshed, warning Japan to surrender and thus to avoid total destruction. It seems logical to me that he who supports total war in principle cannot complain of war against civilians. The crux of the matter is whether total war in its present form is justifiable, even when it serves a just purpose. Does it not have material and spiritual evil as its consequences which far exceed whatever good that might result? When will our moralists give us a clear answer to this question?


The Atomic Bomb: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Boyer, Paul. By the Bomb’s Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age. New York: Pantheon, 1984. An in-depth examination of America’s struggles to deal with the political implications of atomic weapons in the years immediately following the end of World War II.

Dower, John. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Pantheon, 1986. An insightful examination of the patterns of racism that permeated both American and Japanese attitudes during the Pacific war, it helps explain many of the patterns of brutality that characterized that theater.

Hersey, John. Hiroshima. New York: Knopf, 1946. A year after the atomic bombings, Pulitzer Prize-winning author John Hersey collected the firsthand accounts of the attacks and their aftermath. The book remains a searing and valuable look at the bomb’s effects on the ground.

Linenthal, Edward T., and Tom Engelhardt. History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past. New York: Henry Holt, 1996. A collection of essays that deals with the fallout from the planned 50th-anniversary exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum, and its implications for America’s efforts to understand its own past.

Spector, Ronald. Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan. New York: Free Press, 1985. The best single-volume examination of World War II in the Pacific, it provides detailed analysis of the four-year conflict that culminated in the atomic bombings.


Tawaran istimewa dan promosi produk

Ulasan teratas dari Amerika Syarikat

Terdapat masalah menapis ulasan sekarang. Sila cuba sebentar lagi.

The only thing that might change the minds of those who support America's use of atomic bombs against Japan is the testimony of those who survived the attacks. Gen. Eisenhower, Adm. Leahy and others in the military and government expressed depressed disgust over the use of nuclear weapons against civilians, and Capt. Robert Lewis (co-pilot of the Enola Gay) later met with a group of the Hiroshima Maidens in the U.S. to express his regret and donate money for their medical costs.

"Letters from the End of the World", along with "Hiroshima Diary," present the attack on Hiroshima in terms of the human cost and suffering of civilians. More lives were lost in the fire bombings of Japanese cities and the destruction of Dresden but both the immediate and long-term effects of the use of nuclear weapons constitute a horrific act.

We now know that the use of violence against civilian populations tends to strengthen a resolve to fight to the bitter end. Yet, it remains a tactic by some and an accepted consequence by most. The use of nuclear weapons against Japan were not the deciding factor in ending the war. It was already over.

As long as governments and citizens choose to accept the slaughter of civilians as a collateral consequence to conflict, atrocities will continue. Self-satisfied, unexamined clucking about the unfortunate inevitability of civilian deaths in war is a moral crime in itself. Especially since the 20th century heralded in an age of increasing civilian death tolls in all conflicts.

Capt. Paul Tibbets (pilot of the Enola Gay) went to his grave with no regrets about Hiroshima. To his credit, he met with at least one hibakusha (disfigured survivor of the attack). Tibbets rightly stated that all war is immoral and leads to immoral action. We'd better find a different way to settle differences.

Hiroshima today is a gleaming, modern city that somewhat mutes even a visit to the Atomic Bomb Dome. Even the memorial museum does not convey the horror of August 6th, 1945 the way the witness testimonies do. I can't imagine someone reading this book and not being moved.


Firsthand Account of Hiroshima Bombing - HISTORY

Account of the bombing of Hiroshima
Digital History ID 1185

Author: Michihiko Hachiya
Date:1995

Anotasi: A Japanese physician offers a first-hand account of the bombing of Hiroshima.


Dokumen: The hour was early the morning still, warm, and beautiful. Shimmering leaves, reflecting sunlight from a cloudless sky, made a pleasant contrast with shadows in my garden as I gazed absently through wide-flung doors opening to the south.

Clad in drawers and undershirt, I was sprawled on the living room floor exhausted because I had just spent a sleepless night on duty as an air warden in my hospital.

Suddenly, a strong flash of light startled me - and then another. So well does one recall little things that I remember vividly how a stone lantern in the garden became brilliantly lit and I debated whether this light was caused by a magnesium flare or sparks from a passing trolley.

Garden shadows disappeared. The view where a moment before had been so bright and sunny was now dark and hazy. Through swirling dust I could barely discern a wooden column that had supported one comer of my house. It was leaning crazily and the roof sagged dangerously.

Moving instinctively, I tried to escape, but rubble and fallen timbers barred the way. By picking my way cautiously I managed to reach the roka (an outside hallway)and stepped down into my garden. A profound weakness overcame me, so I stopped to regain my strength. To my surprise I discovered that I was completely naked How odd! Where were my drawers and undershirt?

All over the right side of my body I was cut and bleeding. A large splinter was protruding from a mangled wound in my thigh, and something warm trickled into my mouth. My check was torn, I discovered as I felt it gingerly, with the lower lip laid wide open. Embedded in my neck was a sizable fragment of glass which I matter-of-factly dislodged, and with the detachment of one stunned and shocked I studied it and my blood-stained hand.

Suddenly thoroughly alarmed, I began to yell for her: 'Yaeko-san! Yaeko-san! Where are you?' Blood began to spurt. Had my carotid artery been cut? Would I bleed to death? Frightened and irrational, I called out again 'It's a five-hundred-ton bomb! Yaeko-san, where are you? A five- hundred-ton bomb has fallen!'

Yaeko-san, pale and frightened, her clothes torn and blood stained, emerged from the ruins of our house holding her elbow. Seeing her, I was reassured. My own panic assuaged, I tried to reassure her.

'We'll be all right,' I exclaimed. 'Only let's get out of here as fast as we can.'

She nodded, and I motioned for her to follow me….

We started out, but after twenty or thirty steps I had to stop. My breath became short, my heart pounded, and my legs gave way under me. An overpowering thirst seized me and I begged Yaeko-san to find me some water. But there was no water to be found. After a little my strength somewhat returned and we were able to go on.

I was still naked, and although I did not feel the least bit of shame, I was disturbed to realize that modesty had deserted me. On rounding a corner we came upon a soldier standing idly in the street. He had a towel draped across his shoulder, and I asked if he would give it to me to cover my nakedness. The soldier surrendered the towel quite willingly but said not a word. A little later I lost the towel, and Yaeko-san took off her apron and tied it around my loins.

Our progress towards the hospital was interminably slow, until finally, my legs, stiff from drying blood, refused to carry me farther. The strength, even the will, to go on deserted me, so I told my wife, who was almost as badly hurt as I, to go on alone. This she objected to, but there was no choice. She had to go ahead and try to find someone to come back for me.

Yaeko-san looked into my face for a moment, and then, without saying a word, turned away and began running towards the hospital. Once, she looked back and waved and in a moment she was swallowed up in the gloom. It was quite dark now, and with my wife gone, a feeling of dreadful loneliness overcame me. I must have gone out of my head lying there in the road because the next thing I recall was discovering that the clot on my thigh had been dislodged and blood was again spurting from the wound.

I pressed my hand to the bleeding area and after a while the bleeding stopped and I felt better Could I go on?

I tried. It was all a nightmare - my wounds, the darkness, the road ahead. My movements were ever so slow only my mind was running at top speed.

In time I came to an open space where the houses had been removed to make a fire lane. Through the dim light I could make out ahead of me the hazy outlines of the Communications Bureau's big concrete building, and beyond it the hospital. My spirits rose because I knew that now someone would find me and if I should die, at least my body would be found. I paused to rest. Gradually things around me came into focus. There were the shadowy forms of people, some of whom looked like walking ghosts. Others moved as though in pain, like scarecrows, their arms held out from their bodies with forearms and hands dangling. These people puzzled me until I suddenly realized that they had been burned and were holding their arms out to prevent the painful friction of raw surfaces rubbing together. A naked woman carrying a naked baby came into view. I averted my gaze. Perhaps they had been in the bath. But then I saw a naked man, and it occurred to me that, like myself, some strange thing had deprived them of their clothes. An old woman lay near me with an expression of suffering on her face but she made no sound. Indeed, one thing was common to everyone I saw - complete silence.

All who could were moving in the direction of the hospital. I joined in the dismal parade when my strength was somewhat recovered, and at last reached the gates of the Communications Bureau.

List of site sources >>>


Tonton videonya: Bang Surya Nanya Sama Anak Kecil. Hiroshima Dibom Oleh Siapa??? (Januari 2022).